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If ever there was a streaming service that was delightfully difficult to pull highlights from, it’s The Criterion Channel. The streaming side of the Criterion Collection that rose after the death of FilmStruck, The Criterion Channel is the undisputed arthouse king. HBO Max and Amazon have massive libraries that include some cinephile delights, but you could throw a digital dart into Criterion’s catalog and hit something that’ll blow your mind—and a few supplemental special features to educate its remains.

Showcasing some of the biggest names in film history, pulling from masters that dominate our superlative lists of both country and decade-specific cinema, the streamer is a gold mine. Yasujiro Ozu, Agnés Varda, Chantal Akerman, Akira Kurosawa, Satyajit Ray, Federico Fellini, Charlie Chaplin—basically, if they turn up in a History of Film textbook, it’s more than likely you’ll find a way into their work here. Obviously the work of these filmmakers isn’t boxed into the quiet, black-and-white highbrow movie cliché that keeps some movie lovers at arm’s length from anything with subtitles, but the Channel’s modern filmmakers only disrupt this exclusionary, gatekeeping notion further. Turning to Steve McQueen, Kelly Reichardt, Paolo Sorrentino, Wong Kar-wai—heck, even Jackie Chan—there are movies in every era and every genre for those looking for a quality time.

The $10.99/month fee also includes guest curators (who contribute interviews alongside their picks), short films and built-in binge-ready collections (its ‘70s horror offerings and Black Westerns are particularly fun), but there’s no getting around the main draw: A massive, essential collection of high-quality international cinema. While the films available shift from month to month (the hazard of any streamer), Criterion’s always offering new collections to help those of us that need a little push into watching something. We’ll keep this list updated with the latest and greatest classics and curios. The only film to leave the Channel in May was Spike Lee’s Bamboozled, which we’ve replaced with Charles Burnett’s vital To Sleep with Anger.

Year: 1963

Director: Federico Fellini

Stars: Marcello Mastroianni, Claudia Cardinale, Anouk Aimee

Runtime: 140 minutes

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With Fellini we wander through a shadow of his psyche, wondering where his memories begin and where Guido’s (Marcello Mastroiani) psychoses end. Perhaps Fellini’s most impressive blending of dreams and fantasies, of moral truth and oneiric fallacy, of space and time, 8 1/2 tells its story in Möbius strips, wrapping realities into realities in order to leave audiences helplessly buried within its main character’s self-absorption. Guido’s obsession is so inward-looking he can’t help but destroy every single close relationship in his life, and yet, in hanging the film’s narrative on the struggle of one filmmaker to make his latest film—the title refers to the fact that this was Fellini’s eighth-and-a-half feature—the iconic Italian director seems to claim that artistic genius practically demands such solipsism. It’s a brazen statement for a film to make, but Fellini does so with such grace and vision, with such seamless intent, 8 1/2 becomes a bittersweet masterpiece: Clear, aching and steeped in nostalgia, it celebrates the kind of glorious life only cinema can offer. —Dom Sinacola

Year: 2016

Director: Kirsten Johnson

Runtime: 102 minutes

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Kirsten Johnson’s title for her latest documentary feature could not be any more nondescript. And yet, the anonymity of that title points to perhaps the most remarkable aspect about this film: its maker’s sheer selflessness, her devotion to her craft and her subjects, her seemingly complete lack of ego. The film is pieced together from outtakes from the long-time documentary filmmaker/cinematographer’s extensive body of work, but beyond occasionally hearing her voice behind the camera (and one shot towards the end in which we finally see her face as she points the camera toward herself), Johnson forgoes the safety net of voiceover narration to tie all this footage together. The footage speaks for itself, and for her. Which is not to say that the film is just a compilation of clips strung together willy-nilly. Johnson breathes an animating intelligence into Cameraperson’s construction, employing a method that suggests a mind processing one’s life experiences, contemplating the sum total of her work, veering off into tangents whenever she happens upon a piece of footage that triggers broader reflections. It’s a measure of Johnson’s overall humility that she is willing to be as brutally honest about herself with the viewers in this way—and it’s that humility that ultimately makes Cameraperson such an inspiring experience. —K.F.

Year: 1979

Director: Andrei Tarkovsky

Stars: Marcello Mastroianni, Claudia Cardinale, Anouk Aimee

Runtime: 140 minutes

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“Once, the future was only a continuation of the present. All its changes loomed somewhere beyond the horizon. But now the future’s a part of the present.” So says the Writer (Anatoli Solonitsyn) in Andrei Tarkovsky’s Stalker, somewhere deep in the Zone, contemplating the deeper trenches of his subconscious, of his fears and life and whatever “filth” exists within him. “Are they prepared for this?” he asks. In Tarkovsky’s last Soviet film, the director seems to be admitting that what he’s feared most has come to pass. What that means is of course nebulous for a viewer not steeped in the director’s life or in the history of the country that was both home and hostile to him and his work throughout most of his life. Based very loosely on Roadside Picnic, a novel by brothers Boris and Arkady Strugatsky (who also wrote the screenplay), Stalker imagines a dystopic future not far from our present—or Tarkovsky’s present, before the fall of the Berlin Wall or the devastation of Chernobyl—in which some sort of otherworldly force has deposited a place humans have called “the Zone” onto Earth. There, the laws of Nature don’t apply, time and space thwarted by the hidden desires and wills of all those who enter it. Of course, the government has set up cordons around the Zone, and entry is strictly prohibited. Guides/liaisons called “stalkers” head illegal expeditions into the Zone, taking clients (often intellectual elites who can afford the trip) into the heart of the restricted, alien area—in search of, as we learn as the film slowly moves on, the so-called “Room,” where a person’s deepest desires become reality. One such Stalker (Aleksandr Kaidanovsky) is hired by the aforementioned Writer and a physicist (or something) known only as the Professor (Nikolai Grinko) to lead them into the Zone, spurred by vague ideas of what they’ll find when they reach the Room. The audience is as much in the dark, and through Tarkovsky’s (near-intolerably) patient shots, the three men come to discover, as do those watching their journey, what has really brought them to such an awful extreme as hiring a spiritual criminal to guide them into the almost certain doom of whatever the Zone has waiting for them. And yet, no context properly prepares a viewer for the harrowing, hypnotic experience of watching Stalker. Between the sepia wasteland outside the Zone (so detailed in its grime and suspended misery you may need to take a shower afterwards) and the oversaturated greens and blues of the wreckage inside, Tarkovsky moves almost imperceptibly, taking the rhythms of industry and the empty lulls of post-industrial life to the point of making the barely mystical overwhelmingly manifest. Throughout that push and pull, there is the mounting sense of escape—of Tarkovsky escaping the Soviet Union and its restrictions on his films, maybe—as equally as there is the sense that escape should never be attempted. Because some freedom, some knowledge, isn’t meant for us. —Dom Sinacola

Year: 2000

Director: Claire Denis

Stars: Denis Lavant, Michel Subor, Grégoire Colin

Runtime: 93 minutes

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Where most iconic actors have faces akin to national parks and vast landscapes, French actor Denis Lavant’s is a booming metro, its spaces and cracks like the carefully sculpted facade of a city block. He’s gargoyle-like, and so when he plays the lead in Claire Denis’ Beau Travail, he wears all his implicit machismo right there on his mug. As Chief Adjutant Galoup remembering his time in Djibouti, he snarls, lips twisting into a spiral staircase leading into his fractured psyche. His obsession with Gilles Sentain (Grégoire Colin) manifests as competition, and underneath the heat of the beating sun, Galoup lets this fixation eat away at him until there is almost nothing left. The film moves back and forth between Galoup’s time in the army and his present, writing of his experiences, trying to grasp at what made him so hungry for Sentain, but the scars of queer repression are only one note that informs the hypnotic lyricism of Denis’ film. With blasting critiques of colonialism and masculinity, Denis plunges us into the rhythm of the night, however lonely it ultimately is. —Kyle Turner

Year: 2020

Director: Pedro Costa

Stars: Vitalina Varela, Ventura, Manuel Tavares Aplmeida

Runtime: 124 minutes

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If black defines the visual tone in Vitalina Varela, stillness provides the picture’s structure. Portuguese master Pedro Costa shot Vitalina Varela using an aspect ratio close to the Academy ratio (1.33:1 instead of 1.37:1); the result is a movie almost squarely framed, and from that comes the feeling of being hemmed in. There’s very little room to breathe, much less move around; the images do move, but so slowly and so haltingly that they practically read as still anyways. Life in Lisbon’s utterly devastated Fontainhas shantytown is a parade of smothered humanity. Residents march, shamble and occasionally lie prone on the ground, faith depleted, energy drained. Why anyone would return here after spending decades away is a question Costa answers within its first 10 minutes, when the title character, named for the actress who plays her, touches down on the tarmac and is immediately met with bad news. “Vitalina, you arrived too late,” one of the airport workers serving as the welcome wagon tells her. “Your husband was buried days ago. There is nothing in Portugal for you.” Vitalina’s angry. She’s heartbroken. For 40 years, she lived alone in Cape Verde, her husband, Joaquim, having abandoned her. Now, at long last able to reunite with him, she finds that she’s inherited the mess—worldly and spiritual—he left with his passing: the house he built for them, but also the demons he collected over the course of their separation. Each person who comes to Vitalina’s door has demons of their own, too, and no one the audience meets is free from grief, the emotion for which the movie’s pervading darkness functions as an avatar: There’s nothing here for Vitalina other than the task of reconciliation. Withstanding the procession of Vitalina Varela’s suffering requires patience and endurance, but maybe the way Costa and Varela explore grief’s every nook and cranny will yield unexpected relief from our own. —Andy Crump

Years: 1954 -1956

Director: Hiroshi Inagaki

Stars: Toshiro Mifune, Rentaro Mikuni, Kuroemon Onoe

Runtime: 93, 103 and 104 minutes

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The Seven Samurai gets a lot of mainstream credit for being the samurai movie’s defining epic, but we should probably fix that and give equal kudos to Hiroshi Inagaki’s massive, three-chapter chronicle of the life and times of Miyamoto Musashi (Toshiro Mifune), a legendary swordsman and the author of The Book of the Five Rings, essentially a text devoted to the subject of kicking ass. Maybe the comparison to The Seven Samurai isn’t fair to The Seven Samurai: That’s a single three-hour movie in contrast to three movies each in the ballpark of 90 to 140 minutes in length. Simply put, The Samurai Trilogy is epic defined, wrought as cinema that helped shape the samurai film alongside Kurosawa’s watershed picture. (It’s worth noting that the first chapter of Inagaki’s trilogy, Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto, opened in 1954, the same year as Seven Samurai. It’s only natural to stack the two against each other.) The Samurai Trilogy is a work of enduring maturity, capturing Musashi’s arc of growth as a fencer, and as a man, over the course of years spent dueling, studying and tending his very soul. The films alternate between mediation and action, both in context as individual movies and as parts of a greater whole; Samurai II: Duel at Ichijoji Temple in particular emphasizes action more than its siblings, ending with a massive battle between Musashi and a horde of bad guys in need of a few sword slashes apiece. But even so, that movie can’t help being about tenets of samurai discipline, and the search for self-improvement through marriage of mind and body. Combined, Inagaki’s films make up the most sweeping, romantic and rigorous production of its kind, bolstered by what’s arguably the most sophisticated and nuanced performance of Mifune’s career. —Andy Crump

Year: 1962

Director: Agnès Varda

Stars: Corinne Marchand, Antoine Bourseiller, Dominique Davray

Runtime: 89 minutes

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Halfway through Agnès Varda’s sophomore film, the titular Cléo (Corinne Marchand), a pop singer awaiting the potentially devastating results of some sort of medical test, looks directly into the camera, weeping as she sings a song during an otherwise typical practice session. It’s a revelatory moment: Varda addresses her audience directly through her character addressing her audience directly, all while on the precipice of total dissolution. Cléo, a beautiful, burgeoning celebrity, seems to understand that she may be empty without her looks, just as she rails against the forces that put her in such an untenable position. In other words, realizing in that moment of melodrama, of the heightened emotion she knows all too well is the stuff of pop music at its most marketably patronizing, that her attractiveness may be soon over, she’s driven to tears, unable to reconcile her talent with her face, or her fragility with her livelihood, leaving it to the audience to decide whether she deserves our sympathy or not. If not, Varda wonders, then why not? Shot practically in real time, Cléo from 5 to 7 waits along with our character as she waits for life-changing news, floating from coffee shop to home to park to wherever, not doing much of anything with the life she has, the life she may find out she’s losing soon enough. She watches a silent film featuring cameos by Jean-Luc Godard and Anna Karina, meets a soldier on leave from the Algerian front (Antoine Bourseiller) who confesses he believes people are dying for nothing, drives past a murder scene and senses that the universe maybe has misdirected her bad luck towards another soul. One of the defining films of the Left Bank branch of the French New Wave (as opposed to those of the “Right Bank,” the more famous films of Truffaut and Godard, the movement’s more commercial, cosmopolitan cinephiles), Cléo from 5 to 7 is a fever dream of the ordinary, a meditation on the nothingness of everyday living, as existential as it is blissfully bereft of purpose. —Dom Sinacola

Year: 2008

Director: Steve McQueen

Stars: Michael Fassbender, Stuart Graham, Liam Cunningham

Runtime: 96 minutes

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Hunger exists in minutiae and mundanity and excruciating detail—in long takes and philosophical discussions with no end and lots of pain, both physical and existential. Director Steve McQueen’s (Shame, 12 Years a Slave) feature-length debut understands that the human body is the last battlefield over belief, that nationalism, politics, religion and civil rights will always, eventually come down to the flesh—to whether or not we have full control over ourselves—and so in this recounting of the 1981 hunger strikes by Republican prisoners in Northern Ireland, McQueen focuses on the visceral drudgery of political action. McQueen would go on to further explore the ways in which physicality can be expressed on film as thematically as it is immersively (especially in Shame, also starring Michael Fassbender, which is perhaps his most direct examination of belief and the limits of the flesh), but in Hunger he so seamlessly juxtaposes the quotidian with historic events that you can’t help but watch his film and feel it—all the way down to your guts. —Dom Sinacola

Year: 1947

Directors: Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger

Stars: Deborah Kerr, Sabu, David Farrar

Runtime: 101 minutes

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A melodrama set in a convent in British-ruled Himalayan India, directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger and starring Deborah Kerr and David Farrar, Black Narcissus provides a recipe for … strangeness. And it’s a beautiful kind of strangeness. Five nuns are sent to establish a convent, school and hospital in a former harem. It’s difficult to adapt to the new surroundings, and the agent who’s on call to help them do it is, well, he’s a bit of a temptation. There are tragic consequences, naturally. The story’s compelling enough, but what really blows me away about this film is the otherworldly visual sensibility. Powell’s camerawork is mesmerizing and the film is steeped in supersaturated color, underlining the exoticism and confusion faced by the nuns, sending the viewer to another dimension. —Amy Glynn

Year: 1959

Director: Alain Resnais

Stars: Emmanuelle Riva, Eiji Okada

Runtime: 90 minutes

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Alain Resnais’s 1959 masterpiece begins like a documentary, one reminiscent of his harrowing 1955 nonfiction short Night and Fog, except focused on the aftermath of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima during World War II. Instead of an omniscient voiceover narrator, however, we hear what we eventually discover are two lovers: a French actress (Emmanuelle Riva) and a Japanese architect (Eiji Okada) who, in the present day, have met in Hiroshima are both carrying on extramarital affairs with each other, even as they realize it can’t last. It sounds like pure Casablanca-like forbidden romance, but under Resnais and screenwriter Marguerite Duras, Hiroshima Mon Amour touches on broader ideas: chiefly, the potential impossibility of art to measure up to personal experience and memory. The man’s repeated incantations to the woman that “You saw nothing in Hiroshima” suggests a level of perspective on the horrific event that even she, starring in a well-meaning “movie about peace,” can’t possibly access. She can only try to identify through her own experience as a tormented outsider in the village in which she grew up—but really, how can even that possibly measure up to the devastation of such a horrific event? Even Hiroshima itself, as captured in black-and-white by cinematographers Sacha Vierny and Michio Takahashi, seems to want to try to forget its past, by covering it up in a preponderance of neon lights. Resnais aids Duras’s reflections on history and memory with a then-groundbreaking editing style that fluidly goes back and forth between past and present. The enduring miracle of Hiroshima Mon Amour, though, is that all its formal and philosophical ambition doesn’t obscure the poignance of its central romance, especially with Emmanuelle Riva’s indelible expressions of passion, anguish and regret. —Kenji Fujishima

Year: 2013

Director: Paolo Sorrentino

Stars: Toni Servillo, Carlo Verdone, Sabrina Ferilli

Runtime: 141 minutes

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Move over Gatsby, the best movie of 2013 about rich people’s problems was Paolo Sorrentino’s gorgeous The Great Beauty. A dapper gentleman (Toni Servillo), in the truest of director Federico Fellini’s traditions, strays from exorbitant party to outlandish party with a circle of friends while musing on life, Rome and love. But on his 65th birthday, he’s thrown off his groove and begins to wonder about the limited worldview and superficial party culture he’s a part of. While maintaining a sense of the absurd, the movie is artfully composed to encapsulate the opulent lifestyle of the rich and aimless. Beauty is both a loving tribute and spiritual continuation of Fellini’s La Dolce Vita, and manages to pull off both feats in style.—Monica Castillo

Year: 1965

Director: Antonio Pietrangeli

Stars: Stefania Sandrelli, Mario Adorf, Jean-Claude Brialy

Runtime: 115 minutes

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Ever wonder what La Dolce Vita would look like if Federico Fellini had shot it through a feminine perspective? Wonder no longer. I Knew Her Well, an unsung masterpiece from Commedia all’italiana director Antonio Pietrangeli, is essentially what the sweet life looks like from the point of view of a young woman, Adriana (portrayed in a stunning lead performance by Stefania Sandrelli, whose video interview is a must-watch among the Blu-ray’s supplemental features). Adriana’s a country girl who self-relocates to Rome in pursuit of fame, celebrity and all the spoils that notoriety afford those who are able to capture it; she has no greater aspirations than to bask in stardom’s scintillating warmth, or at least none that are articulated explicitly through text. Either unwittingly or not, I Knew Her Well—a title whose suggestion of familiarity reminds us that we’ve all read about a person like Stefanie in tabloids or seen her on television—flips the male gaze inhabited and critiqued in Fellini’s masterpiece on its head. Pietrangeli shows his audience what it is to be manipulated and used, rather than what it is to be the manipulator or the user. The results are equally as shocking as they are revelatory. —Andy Crump

Year: 1966

Director: Ousmane Sembène

Stars: Mbissine Thérèse Diop, Anne-Marie Jelinek, Momar Nar Sene

Runtime: 60 minutes

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Senegalese director Ousmane Sembène grew up a French citizen in the final throes of his country’s centuries-long period of colonialism, almost 40 when Senegal joined French Sudan to gain independence. Made six years after France transferred power, Black Girl, Sembène’s first feature-length film as writer and director (based off of his own short story), aches with wounds still lifetimes away from healing, worsened by the shallowness of a people (French) who just want to move on and with the humiliation and resentment of a lot more people (Africans) who physically live everyday—in their language and social structures and economic lots—surrounded by the reminders that they for so long were not their own. Sembène makes this divide dreadfully clear, telling the story of quiet Diouana (Mbissine Thérèse Diop), hired by a French family to serve as their nanny in Dakar, until they move back to the Riviera and encourage (expect) Diouana to go and live with them. Of course, once she arrives, the bitter, malicious Madame (Anne-Marie Jelinek) expects her to cook and clean, callously stretching the bounds of Diouana’s duties as nanny into a kind of indentured servitude, exacerbated by Diouana’s inability to read and lack of money. She is, literally, stuck in France. Meanwhile, Sembène cuts to memories of Diouana’s life before she left Senegal, in which she lived in relative poverty but had family and boyfriend (Momar Nar Sene) to support her, telling her not to leave but still needing the money she could potentially earn. Juxtaposing these two realities, Sembène slowly crafts a vision of post-colonial slavery in a post-war world, building a tension that gives Diouana no choice but to tragically get out the only way she knows how. Despite whatever the Madame and her family had in mind, Diouana’s story could have ended no other way. —Dom Sinacola

Year: 1966

Director: Gillo Pontecorvo

Stars: Brahim Haggiag, Jean Martin, Saadi Yacef

Runtime: 121 minutes

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A perfect meeting of story and style, Gillo Pontecorvo’s guerrilla warfare drama The Battle of Algiers reflects in its grainy docu-style the scrappy tactics of the combatants: the revolutionary Algerian National Liberation Front, executing police and civilians in cafes and in the streets, and the French governors and counter-insurgents, struggling to combat a threat to their existence in a land they rule but don’t fully understand. Like a great documentary would, The Battle of Algiers takes a coolly balanced and non-judgmental view of its subjects, coming down neither on the side of the radicals nor the colonialists, but in another way Pontecorvo’s raw newsreel design is deceptive: what appears improvisational is actually meticulously arranged. The director’s great achievement is that not a second of his film is without purpose, yet it unfolds as a constant surprise, almost as though the footage was not shot but discovered. —Brogan Morris

Year: 1950

Director: Akira Kurosawa

Stars: Toshiro Mifune, Machiko Kyo, Masayuki Mori

Runtime: 88 minutes

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What you get out of Rashomon likely reflects what you bring into it, but it might help to bring a basic grasp of cubism into it. You hear the word “cubist,” your brain probably goes right to Picasso and Braque, but in cinema it ought to head straight to Kurosawa, who in essence gave birth to the movie version of cubism with Rashomon by performing a feat as deceptively simple as filtering a single narrative through multiple character perspectives; the more Kurosawa filters that narrative, the more the narrative changes, until we can no longer determine which to trust and which to write off. In the trial that comprises the bulk of the film’s plot, who is telling the truth? The bandit, the man accused of murdering a samurai and raping his wife? The wife? The samurai himself, summoned to the trial via spirit medium? Even when Kurosawa generously reveals what actually happened when the bandit crossed paths with the samurai and his wife via the post-trial testimony of a humble woodcutter, we’re still left to wrestle with the question of who, and what, we should believe. Kurosawa’s technical mastery is always awesome to behold, but in Rashomon, it’s his gift for utterly blurring reality that dazzles most. —Andy Crump

Year: 1925

Director: Charles Chaplin

Stars: Charles Chaplin, Georgia Hale

Runtime: 88 minutes

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The Klondike gold rush made the perfect setting for Charles Chaplin’s tramp to run wild. Chaplin took all the motifs he could find from adventure novels, melodramas and other stories of the northern frontier, tossed them in a blender and served up a collection of what would become his most famous scenes. He finds humor in peril—with a suspenseful teetering cabin scene, as well as starvation (when he famously makes a meal of his boot) and of course finds time to show off with his dancing roll scene. However, no one has succeeded in finding any humor in the atrocious voiceover Chaplin added to the 1942 rerelease. Be sure to watch the original version. For a more serious take on the Klondike hardships, see Clarence Brown’s The Trail of ’98 (1928).

Year: 1954

Director: Federico Fellini

Stars: Giulietta Masina, Anthony Quinn, Richard Basehart

Runtime: 109 minutes

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I like to imagine that if Fellini made La Strada today, we’d all be able to marvel at the depth of compassion he feels toward the film’s male lead, Anthony Quinn, playing the brutish traveling circus performer Zampano, a strong man who shatters chains with the might of his Herculean pecs. The reality is that asking your audience to pity an abusive, terrible human being at the near-literal last minute is asking a lot, but Fellini’s grace as an artist makes that pill easier to swallow. He heaps cruelties both physical and spiritual upon his two subjects, Zampano and the childlike Gelsomina (played by Fellini’s luminous and eminently talented wife, Giulietta Masina), reserving the brunt of the film’s suffering for her: Gelsomina labors under Zampano’s merciless direction and by consequence lives in a state of constant existential anxiety, ever pondering what her place is in the universal order. Maybe it’s just her lot in life to hurt. Maybe there is no universal order. Or maybe she was put on Earth to visit justice beyond the grace on Zampano as he collapses weeping on the beach, broken by the realization of his sins. La Strada is a deceptively simple picture layered with intricate, empathetic subtexts, and this, perhaps, is why it remains the most essential neorealist effort in Fellini’s body of work. —Andy Crump

Year: 1976

Director: Elaine May

Stars: Peter Falk, John Cassavetes, Ned Beatty, William Hickey

Runtime: 107 minutes

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Everyone’s got a friend like Nicky (John Cassavetes), though the Nickys of the world exist on a sliding scale. Not every Nicky works for the mob, or womanizes, or betrays the mob, or generally acts like a large diameter asshole at any provocation or under any amount of strain. But strip Mikey and Nicky of its genre particulars, its gangster trappings, and what remains is a recognizable story of two friends at loggerheads, joined by the history of their lifetimes, inseparable, and yet chemically volatile when standing in arm’s reach of each other. Mikey (Peter Falk) and Nicky go way back. They’ve been pals since always, since before they became small time crooks, since before their parents shuffled their mortal coils. Mikey’s the equanimous one, Nicky the hothead, though Mikey’s only cool and composed when stood next to Nicky. “You give me that in 30 seconds or I’ll kill you, you hear me?” he roars at a diner counterman, desperate for a cup of cream to help soothe Nicky’s ailing stomach. Neither is especially good to women, and both are in boiling water, though Mikey’s only up to his toes and Nicky’s waist-deep, having ripped off his boss and earned a hit on his forehead. The most honest move Mikey can make is to leave Nicky to the mob’s mercies, but he’s not an honest man and honestly, male relationships aren’t all that honest. Elaine May understands how quickly men oscillate between emotion and violence, rancor and play. One minute Mikey’s fretting over Nicky catching a cold. The next, they’re scrapping in the street, as if their friendship never mattered in the first place. Amazing how easily men can transgress from adults to boys, whether they’re trading blows or just gleefully racing one another down the sidewalk. Even when they’re all grown up, they’re still children at heart. Over 40 years later, Mikey and Nicky has aged better than both of them. —Andy Crump

Year: 1945

Director: Roberto Rossellini

Stars: Aldo Fabrizi, Anna Magnani, Marcello Pagliero

Runtime: 103 minutes

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When you think of Italian neorealist cinema, your mind probably zips straight right on over to Vittorio De Sica’s Bicycle Thieves, a beautifully made movie about the harsh realities of life in postwar Italy. Bicycle Thieves marries sober observations about its time and place with an abiding sense of optimism that’s fully realized in the film’s climax. By contrast, Roberto Rossellini’s Rome, Open City denies its viewers the admittedly mild succor granted us by Bicycle Thieves, offering instead a raw, righteous outrage that stems from Rosselini’s national pride. The film understands wartime trauma in ways most war films simply don’t; it captures Italy’s emotional, and sociopolitical fragility in the aftermath of World War II on celluloid like an insect trapped in amber, indulging in slight degrees of wish fulfillment while staging a credible representation of Italian resistance to German occupation in 1944. Rossellini contrasts Italian fear with Italian heroism, creating opportunities for the movie’s German characters to look inward and realize that force of arms isn’t the same thing as force of courage. It doesn’t take much to do violence upon others. It takes much more to show honest to goodness bravery on pain of death. —A.C.

Year: 1957

Director: Ingmar Bergman

Stars: Max von Sydow, Inga Landgré, Gunnar Björnstrand

Runtime: 96 minutes

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Like any cultural touchstone, any ubiquitous landmark of the arts more mitotically absorbed than actually experienced, The Seventh Seal is bound to be misremembered. We know well the chess game with Death (Bengt Ekerot), as well as Death’s get-up—a sort of gothic mix between Musketeer and monk—etched into the firmament of our pop obsessions (for most my age, it was in Bill and Ted’s Bogus Journey that the bone-white face and cape were first encountered), even if we’ve never actually seen the film. We know well the name of director Ingmar Bergman or that of star Max von Sydow (recently in Force Awakens), even if we aren’t familiar with their work, so ingrained into any working conception of “international cinema” are they, much of which is due to The Seventh Seal. We know well the dour chiaroscuro of Swedish cinema, the arch-symbolic pretension of art house stuff that squeezes all mirth from every orifice of the viewer. But do we forget how little of this movie is the chess game—how dimwitted Death can be? How funny The Seventh Seal actually is? “Is it so cruelly inconceivable to grasp God with the senses?” asks knight Antonius Block (von Sydow). “What is going to happen to those of us who want to believe but aren’t able to?” With The Seventh Seal, a simple story about a jaded knight returning from the Crusades to find that the world he fought for has seemingly been abandoned by God, Bergman sought clarity in the problem of faith—he wanted to map the vast spiritual terrain between experiencing and knowing, between feeling and believing. The reason why today the film still resonates, why we know the movie without having to experience it, is because of that clarity in Bergman’s vision: The Seventh Seal is all symbol, metaphor, allusion—but what it’s symbolic of, a metaphor for or alluding to isn’t too hard for any of us to figure. When the knight asks a question, God answers with silence—and there’s little humans understand better than how that feels. —Dom Sinacola

Year: 1975

Director: Chantal Akerman

Stars: Delphine Seyrig, Jan Decorte

Runtime: 201 minutes

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Belgian director Chantal Akerman built a formidable edifice of domesticity in order to pull it down piece by piece, habit by habit, hourly ritual by daily routine. The title of her second film, a name and a location, reflects a submission to a time and to a place, and over the course of nearly three and a half hours, Akerman defines that name, Jeanne Dielman (Delphine Seyrig), through the ways in which Dielman—mother, single homemaker, occasional prostitute—fills that location, a small Brussels apartment of modest means, with the cooking and cleaning and mothering and fornication of a person trapped within the order and regiment of a society that doesn’t so much care for her as expect her to continue to uphold that order, all for the benefit of the men in her life, who make no attempt to understand the intricacies of what she’s accomplished. On the first day, Akerman establishes Jeanne Dielman’s quotidian, an architecture of perfectly calibrated chores, meals, joyless sex, vigorous bathing and thankless evenings spent with her aloof wad of a son (Jan Decorte), all of which she assembles seamlessly seemingly for him, and for no one else. On the second day, a few items go awry, Jeanne overcooks the potatoes and remainders begin to appear in the facade of her daily algorithm. On the third day, chasms open in the midst of her everyday pattern, Jeanne unable to fill that space with anything at all, because she has nothing save for that structure, no passion or personality besides the ways in which she coddles her progeny and basely satisfies her clients. In the midst of literal minutes’ worth of Jeanne sitting, staring, silent, Akerman introduces tension by default: When Jeanne Dielman can no longer be manifest through her methodical fulfilling of the mundane, does she even exist anymore? Akerman responds with violence, pointless and fatal—followed by more sitting, more staring and the bleak notion that the life lived within the walls of this film may not be anything more than a name, a place and a single act of humanity. —Dom Sinacola

Year: 1990

Director: Charles Burnett

Stars: Danny Glover, Paul Butler, Mary Alice, Carl Lumbly, Vonetta McGee, Richard Brooks, Sheryl Lee Ralph

Runtime: 101 minutes

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Charles Burnett’s serio-comic masterwork opens with a dream sequence and ends with an image that’s entirely too real: The body of a black American man prone on the ground, his dignity simultaneously kept and undermined by the sheet covering him from the eyes of the living. If you thought the Ferguson Police Department’s neglect of Michael Brown’s corpse back in 2014 was a new image, you thought wrong; authorities have left black bodies to rot for hours on end since always. At least in To Sleep with Anger, the body happens to be indoors instead of out on the street. The body belongs to a major ne’er do well, too, not so bad that death’s a fair price for his misdoing but bad enough that no one in the film truly grieves. The true reason to grieve for the incorrigible Harry (Danny Glover) is his postmortem treatment. At the same time, his death finally reunites the family fractured by his presence throughout To Sleep with Anger’s episodic narrative. Harry’s arrival on the doorstep of Gideon (Paul Butler) and Suzie (Mary Alice) realizes the portents of doom Burnett casts at the start of the film, a hazy scene that would feel right at home in Twin Peaks: Gideon, dressed handsomely in a powder blue suit, sits calmly by a fruit bowl that bursts into flames, giving no reaction as they engulf him. Harry doesn’t set Gideon on fire, but his devotion to older ways nevertheless burns his family. To Sleep with Anger creates a multifaceted portrait of a black American family and black American life, the kind we see today in the films of Barry Jenkins, Ava DuVernay, Ryan Coogler and Dee Rees. It’s a pioneering work in keeping with Burnett’s career spent opening doors and blazing trails for black Americans in the film industry, and its addition to the Criterion Collection as a piece of history and as one of Burnett’s best movies reaffirms its essential status. —Andy Crump

Year: 1960

Director: Michelangelo Antonioni

Stars: Gabriele Ferzetti, Monica Vitti

Runtime: 143 minutes

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After honing his craft as a filmmaker Michelangelo Antonioni arrived on the international scene in 1960 with a loose trilogy: L’Avventura, La Notte and L’Eclisse, three films about privileged people so bored with their lives that they have little to do but wander the city and lament their failing relationships. But Antonioni—counter to expectations—watched those people with extreme precision. His camera moved as if it were choreographed down to the millimeter because, while the characters in the films may have been bored, the man watching them was not. He was riveted. And he transferred his fascination to the audience, not telling them tales or teaching them lessons, but raising questions, big ones about existence—why we move around the earth, why we interact with other people, and who we are.—Robert Davis

Year: 2020

Directors: Kleber Mendonça Filho, Juliano Dornelles

Starring: Barbara Colen, Thomas Aquino, Silvero Pereira, Sonia Braga

Runtime: 132 minutes

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Brazilian directors Kleber Mendonça Filho and Juliano Dornelle’s Bacurau begins with a woman named Teresa (Barbara Colen) being driven down a winding mountain road with sweeping swathes of lush greenery below. Suddenly, a splintered wooden casket appears in the middle of the asphalt. After the driver swerves to avoid it, there is another one. And another. Soon, broken caskets litter the entire road. The cause of the coffin calamity is revealed when Teresa sees that an open-back truck transporting caskets has collided into the mountainside, killing its passengers. The scene is oddly pleasant, though, as opportunists have quickly begun selling off the least damaged goods to a line of passersby, both seeming giddy about the exchange. Death is pervasive in the film, but it is often funny, and coincidentally Teresa is on her way to a funeral. Her grandmother—the beloved matriarch of Bacurau, a small Brazilian village where she grew up—has died. The entire town mourns her death, oblivious to the fact that their little village is slowly, literally, being erased from the face of the earth. Here, what has seemed like a horror film morphs into a weird Western that incorporates psychoactive flora, a seemingly benign history museum, and even an apparition or two. That’s not even counting the UFO. Bacurau is wildly creative, and its hilarious, Dadaist aura provides an uncanny comfort despite ample bloodshed. This is not to say that it’s without heart-wrenching loss and tearful contemplation of a world on fire. It’s clear that there is no space for moral ambiguity in this film. In reality, the Amazon is ablaze, rampant inequality festers and indigenous populations are displaced all for the net benefit of the ruling class. Bacurau is a long overdue neo-colonial revenge fantasy. —Natalia Keogan

Year: 1991

Directors: Jennie Livingston

Runtime: 77 minutes

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Madonna’s “voguing” phase has nothing on—that is, took everything from—the drag scene of 1980s New York City chronicled in this vibrant doc. Delving into the subculture of fierce, catwalk-styled posing and the clubs in which it thrived, Jennie Livingston depicts the less-than-glamorous realities of life as a drag queen before RuPaul was mainstream: issues of gender and sexual identity, race, bigotry and hate, HIV/AIDS, poverty, crime—theft is a commonplace means by which these would-be “Legends” seek a desired end: transformation. Named after one of the underground balls in which its subjects find a sense of family—in “houses,” no less—Paris is Burning is a joyous affair, and a curiously meta celebration of what it means “to be real.” —Amanda Schurr

Year: 2016

Directors: Bill Morrison

Runtime: 120 minutes

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For those who know the work of avant-garde documentary filmmaker Bill Morrison well, his latest (and, significantly, longest) opus, Dawson City: Frozen Time, may shock in how formally conventional it is. In essence, the film plays like a feature-length history lesson. That is hardly a criticism, though, when the history is as compelling as it is here. From its humble beginnings as a hunting and fishing village for a nomadic First Nation tribe, Dawson City rose briefly to prominence thanks to the Klondike Gold Rush of 1896, but then plummeted in renown once the rush ended in 1899 and prospectors migrated elsewhere, reducing its population from approximately 40,000 to about 1,000. 1896 was also the year that commercial cinema was basically invented, with the creation of film projectors and the development of movie theaters. These two threads eventually converged in a dilemma for Dawson City officials, as films that were shipped there for exhibition accumulated over time as studios rarely, if ever, asked them to be returned. While many of the prints—all of them made out of nitrate, highly flammable material—burned up in fires, others were simply dumped into the Yukon River, while 533 reels were stored in the basement of the Carnegie Library. In 1929, one official decided to move all those films in the Carnegie Library to a spot underneath a re-built hockey rink, thus unknowingly providing the permafrost cover necessary to ensure their survival and eventual rediscovery in 1978, even as the athletic center that housed the rink burned to the ground in 1951. Morrison’s fascination with those surviving nitrate reels is certainly in keeping with his general fascination with film history, as evinced by his previous work. The heart of Morrison’s film lies in that unearthed nitrate footage, and what he shows of it is often astonishing. Clips of lost silent films are one thing, but images of Fatty Arbuckle playing Dawson City stages, and even footage of the crucial play that led to the 1919 Black Sox scandal are quite another. As impressively exhaustive as it is as a work of history, Dawson City: Frozen Time plays even more affectingly as Morrison’s most direct love letter to cinema: a tool not only for recording history, but also for capturing between-the-lines truths that history books can only graze. That nitrate footage unearthed below a hockey rink in Dawson City, on a broader level, stands as a testament to the potential of art to weather and endure the ravages of time. —Kenji Fujishima

Year: 1964

Director: Richard Lester

Starring: John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr

Runtime: 87 minutes

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That opening chord of “A Hard Day’s Night” is iconic on its own, but when it’s paired with scenes of the Fab Four gleefully outrunning a crowd of screaming fans? Forget about it. The first Beatles movie—a mockumentary filmed at the height of Beatlemania—also happens to be their best; it’s funny, silly, weirdly melancholy at times (it’s hard not to see the foreshadowing when Ringo temporarily quits the band after feeling unappreciated) and full of some fantastic early performances. It manages to poke fun at the fame machine from the inside, and we always get the sense that no one found it funnier than John, Paul, George and Ringo.—Bonnie Stiernberg

Year: 1957

Director: Akira Kurosawa

Starring: Toshiro Mifune, Isuzu Yamada, Minoru Chiaki

Runtime: 109 minutes

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In adapting Macbeth from Scotland to feudal Japan, Akira Kurosawa visually inflected his version with an evocatively chilly ambience—especially with its preponderance of fog and that seemingly isolated castle in the mountains—that gives William Shakespeare’s tragedy of ambition run amok the feel of a horror movie. He also brought elements of Noh theater into the mix—seen in its ceremonial set designs, Masaru Sato’s use of flute and drum in his score, and especially in the deliberately affectless performance styles of Isuzu Yamada and Chieko Naniwa—that has the effect of giving Throne of Blood a ritualized feel, a sense of haunting inevitability. In Kurosawa’s hands, one hardly needs Shakespeare’s own language to experience the horrifying poetry of Washizu’s (Toshiro Mifune) inexorable path toward his own personal doom, imprisoned not just by greed, but also by fear, guilt and heavens-defying egotism. Here is one of cinema’s rare shining examples of a great director transforming a great play and making it indelibly his own. —Kenji Fujishima

Year: 2000

Director: Wong Kar-wai

Stars: Tony Leung Chiu-wai, Maggie Cheung Man-yuk

Runtime: 98 minutes

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Wong’s most acclaimed movie, In the Mood for Love, details the forbidden romance between jilted individuals. In 1962, Chow Mo-wan (Leung) moved into an apartment complex with his wife. Meanwhile, Mrs. Chan (Maggie Cheung) has moved into an adjacent apartment with her husband. They spend their nights alone as both have spouses who work late and are often out. Mr. Chow and Mrs. Chan come to the conclusion that their spouses have been cheating on them. In the Mood for Love then focuses on the budding friendship between Mr. Chow and Mrs. Chan which began as a perverse game to discover how their spouses began their entanglement. The charade of make-believe entertains the couple for a while, but soon they begin falling for each other. There is an understanding between the two of them from the start, the idea that if they were to fall in love with each other, they would be no better than the spouses that have caused them so much pain and anguish. That sacred oath of marriage ties their hands. Had they met at some other time or with different circumstances, perhaps their love story would’ve been complete. There’s moments of weakness, where our protagonists are ready to follow through with their own desires of infidelity, only to miss each other due to some unfortunate happenstance. Mr. Chow and Mrs. Chan often passed each other on a set of stairs leading down to their favorite noodle shop. Before their relationship would begin in earnest, they would be like two ships passing in the night. While these moments seem to exist only for a brief second, Wong extends the sequence far beyond reason, perfecting his technique of step printing. Step printing is the process of shooting the movie in fast motion with a slow shutter speed and then slowing it down in post-process. Wong experiments with motion to make everyday life seem extraordinary.—Max Covill

Year: 2012

Director: Noah Baumbach

Stars: Greta Gerwig, Mickey Sumner, Michael Zegen, Adam Driver

Runtime: 85 minutes

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In a single gesture from actor/writer/Baumbachian collaborator Greta Gerwig, there is an entire universe. She makes a sort of “trespassing” buzz when Lev (Adam Driver) reaches out to touch her shoulder, then, taking a deep sigh of resignation, her body once tense in obligatory “Am I into this guy?” reservation, she relaxes. They might as well be friends. Nothing really goes the way Frances plans; not when she’s asked to move in with her then-boyfriend at the start, not her prospects as a dancer, not her relationship with her best friend, Sophie (Mickey Sumner). But she’s a dancer, right? Her body awkwardly tries to roll with the punches life throws her way—maybe not with the wherewithal of actually trying to figure out what the next thing should be. Even as she continually loses stability after effectively losing her constant (Sophie), Frances has an irrepressible exuberance, running all about Chinatown to David Bowie’s “Modern Love,” scouring the Lower East Side for an ATM and hiding her whole body as she serves as university benefactor’s wine pourer/ward. There is a gracefulness to Gerwig’s gangly gracelessness, as if all of her warmth, fear, pain and joy cobbles itself together in beautiful unwieldy movements. It’s in these moments, and in the shared body language between Frances and Sophie, that Baumbach and Gerwig find the tenderest moments in their career. And in digital black and white, the movie shimmers, recalling not just the buoyancy of the French New Wave, but the economic and social uncertainty of young New Yorkers (perhaps of a particular social subset) who want everything—with the heart, body and soul—except to grow up. —Kyle Turner

Year: 1953

Director: George Stevens

Stars: Alan Ladd, Jean Arthur, Van Heflin

Runtime: 118 minutes

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Shane is another of the great Hollywood westerns and probably the most archetypal and mythical in its execution. The heroes are truly good, the villains badder than bad. It explores one of the classic Western expansion themes, cattle ranching—or the freedom and lawlessness of the open range—versus farming, which eventually leads to civilization and settling down in one place, bringing families and the laws of the city into play. Visually a character straight out of the Old Testament, Rufus Ryker (Emile Meyer) is a shaggy bearded cattle baron hell-bent on driving farming families from the land he considers his. A mysterious rider named Shane (Alan Ladd) arrives in the nick of time to bolster the courage of a group of homesteaders led by Joe Starrett (Van Heflin). Shane and Ryker, along with their cohorts, are relics of the past, ultimately doomed to extinction once the wives and children move in. Unlike Ryker, Shane knows this, and spells it out in their final showdown. The future of the West is in cities and communities. There is no place for lawless men like them in these new frontiers. All these years later, we know that Shane was wrong. Killing and lawlessness still abound in the cities, and big business still tramples the rights of the common man. The film is a reminder, though, that if communities band together, holding strong in faith and trusting one another, they can take back what is rightfully theirs and shape a collective destiny. —Joe Pettit Jr.

Year: 1962

Director: François Truffaut

Stars: Jeanne Moreau, Oskar Werner, Henri Serre

Runtime: 106 minutes

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Widely regarded as a French touchstone, François Truffaut’s classic WWI-era love triangle is based on a semi-autobiographical novel of the same title by Henri-Pierre Roche, which Truffaut stumbled across in a Paris bookstore in the 1950s. The adaptation tells the tragic story of Jim (Henri Serre), a French Bohemian, Jules (Oskar Werner), his Austrian friend, and Catherine (Jeanne Moreau), Jules’ girlfriend/wife. The two men are besotted with Catherine, who bears an eerie resemblance to a statue they both love. She marries Jules. The war breaks out, and the two men, on opposing sides of the conflict, struggle with the fear that one might unwittingly kill the other in battle. (What actually happens is arguably worse.) Both survive, and later, Jim visits Jules and Catherine in their Black Forest cottage. Jules confides he’s miserable, that Catherine has constant affairs, has left him and their baby, Sabine, for months at a time, and that he lives in terror of losing her. Catherine tries to seduce Jim. The three try an experimental situation where Catherine is with both men, but tragedy only ensues from there. Perhaps a definitive example of the French New Wave, the film incorporates a vast lexicon of cinematic techniques—newsreel footage, stills, wipes, panning shots, freeze-frames, voiceover narration (by Michel Subor)—though shades of its towering influence in subsequent films, television and music are almost innumerable. —Amy Glynn

Year: 2000

Director: Agnès Varda

Runtime: 82 minutes

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There’s an argument that the explicit subject of The Gleaners & I—gleaners, their habits and practices—isn’t nearly as important as the woman at the center of it, director Agnès Varda. Her place in the film is deliberate—in telling the story of French gleaners, rural and urban scavengers protected by a series of hilariously specific but often debated French laws, Varda frames herself as a gleaner, a fellow traveler in a world of thrift-minded men and women who survive on what others throw away. As Varda follows gleaners who comb farmer’s fields for leftover produce and urban landscapes for food and other curiosities, the story mutates into a semi-autobiographical narrative about Varda herself, and the simple pleasures of finding. I love the film because it pings several intellectual currents in the late 1990s and early 2000s related to the sharing of information and memory thanks to the Internet. The Gleaners & I becomes a lo-fi take on memory, curating, nostalgia and the reframing of discarded cultural detritus, which itself becomes a metaphor for the film’s argument: that the world of poverty might also be reframed, because Varda’s exhaustive studies show the spirit of gleaning is strong among people of all walks of life. Her wonderful presence at the center of these discussions makes the film deeply personal and brimming with optimism, but also far more profound than its subject matter might suggest. —Mark Abraham

Year: 1964

Director: Jacques Demy

Stars: Catherine Deneuve, Nino Castelnuovo

Runtime: 92 minutes

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Jacques Demy’s masterpiece is a soaring, vibrant, innately bittersweet story of love lost, found and forever disbanded, another wartime casualty in a country scarred by military conflict. The Umbrellas of Cherbourg is lived-in, a story derived from Demy’s life experience, and that keyword—“experience”—is essential to making the film click. Take away its musical cues, and you’re left with a narrative about a young man (Nino Castelnuovo) and a young woman (Catherine Deneuve) who fall deeply in love with one another, only to be torn apart when he’s drafted to fight overseas. The story remains rooted in Demy’s pathos, and pathos gives Umbrellas’ gravity. The music, of course, is a critical part of its character, a dose of magic Demy uses to buttress the rigors of life in wartime with grandeur and meaning. It’s a film about people in love falling out of love, and then falling in love all over again with new partners and altered sentiments, a beautiful picture as likely to make you swoon as to crush your heart. —Andy Crump

Year: 1928

Director: Carl Th. Dreyer

Stars: Renée Falconetti, Eugene?Silvain, André Berley

Runtime: 81 minutes

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Renée Jeanne Falconetti’s face is in your brain, whether you’re aware of it there or not. Its contours and stipples, topped by hair shorn of substance or style—her head centered by two wide eyes rimmed with tears, always in some sort of superposition between ecstasy and misery—consumes boundless space in Danish director Carl Th. Dreyer’s silent masterpiece, seemingly suspended over the long course of history between now (whenever now happens to be) and when Dreyer first envisioned this immersive, expressionist experience. Dreyer wrote of his film, “What counted was getting the spectator absorbed in the past,” and then explained further, “A thorough study of the documents from the rehabilitation process was necessary; I did not study the clothes of the time, and things like that. The year of the event seemed as inessential to me as its distance from the present.” Though The Passion of Joan of Arc Dreyer based on the 1491 transcripts of its titular saint’s trial for heresy (the director welcomed by the Société Générale des Films to make a film in France, his choice of subject bolstered by France’s canonization of Joan of Arc after World War I), he provides little visual detail or historical context. Instead he submerges the viewer in Joan’s perspective, keeps his hand on our heads as we drown in the torment of what she’s subjected to, rarely releasing his weight except for in the film’s final moments, when Joan’s brutal execution at the stake unleashes violence throughout the citizenry. But mostly: that face, awestruck throughout time. Most notably, in Jean-Luc Godard’s Vivre sa vie, the director watches as his protagonist, Nana (Anna Karina), watches Joan of Arc, lighting her tear-streaked face in close-up as she experiences something of the same images before her. Godard reflects Falconetti’s face in Karina’s, spanning more than three decades as if they’re nothing. There is perhaps no better ode to the power of what Dreyer achieved: Timelessness borne by the tragedy of our all too weak, all too human, flesh. —Dom Sinacola

Year: 1960

Director: Jean-Luc Godard

Stars: Jean-Paul Belmondo, Jean Seberg, Daniel Boulanger

Runtime: 90 minutes

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Godard is arguably the most prolific, impactful French director of all time, and Breathless is his first New Wave film: To some, it spawned a revolution, and even if you object to that narrative, its influence on his home country and the New Hollywood period in 1970s America is undeniable. Breathless stars Jean-Paul Belmondo as an incompetent criminal in love with an American student named Patricia (Jean Seberg) in Paris. When he murders a cop, the film turns from a light Parisian affair to a tense love story, and the question that hangs in the balance is whether Patricia will betray her criminal beau. —Shane Ryan

Year: 1974

Director: Tobe Hooper

Stars: Marilyn Burns, Paul A. Partain, Edwin Neal

Runtime: 83 minutes

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One of the most brutal mainstream horror films ever released, The Texas Chain Saw Massacre, based on notorious Wisconsin serial killer Ed Gein, resembles art-house verité built on the grainy physicality of its flat Texas setting. Plus, it introduced the superlatively sinister Leatherface, the iconic chainsaw-wielding giant of a man who wears a mask made of human skin, whose freakish sadism is upstaged only by the introduction of his cannibalistic family with whom he resides in a dilapidated house in the middle of the Texas wilderness, together chowing on the meat Leatherface and his brothers harvest, while Grandpa drinks blood and fashions furniture from victims’ bones. Still, The Texas Chain Saw Massacre might not be the goriest horror film ever made, but as an imaginal excavation of the subterranean anxieties of a post-Vietnam rural American populace, it’s pretty much unparalleled. Twisted, dark and beautiful all at once, it careens through a wide variety of tones and techniques without ever losing its singular intensity. (And there are few scenes in this era of horror with more disturbing sound design than the bit where Leatherface ambushes a guy with a single dull hammer strike to the head before slamming the metal door shut behind him.) —Rachel Haas and Brent Ables

Year: 1984

Director: John Sayles

Stars: Joe Morton, Daryl Edwards, Steve James

Runtime: 109 minutes

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An inevitable thematic companion piece to The Man Who Fell to Earth, John Sayles’ brilliantly subversive, socially incisive The Brother From Another Planet looks at humanity through a distinctly less luxurious lens, if not a more outwardly humanistic context. Beginning with the crash landing of a spaceship in 1980s Harlem, “Three-toe” (a stunning Joe Morton, who may be best known in the contemporary landscape as Olivia Pope’s father on Scandal) is a mute alien who’s on the run from two Men in Black from his planet, where he was enslaved for labor. Mistaken for a foreigner given his inability to speak English, he fortuitously falls into the good graces of a local bar owner and its band of idiosyncratic regulars. At first, they can’t decide whether he’s a wino or crazy, but as one of the regulars, Fly (Darryl Edwards), states after pushing a shot of whiskey in front of him, “He hates the flavor of booze, so he must be crazy.” Still, they stand up for their own, and soon they’ve found him a place to stay and are telling the Men in Black to buzz off, with mixed results. A purely low-budget affair, the glistening steel drum soundtrack, distinctly ’80s New York milieu and glitchy digital special effects have certainly carbon-dated The Brother From Another Planet, but that doesn’t mean its message is any less resonant. A beacon of multiculturalism, “Three-toe” drifts from neighborhood to neighborhood, wandering the streets and peering into the treatment of different communities through conversations with social services representatives, cops and junkies. Without saying a word, he helps people through supernatural and, more engagingly, natural ways. Per usual, Sayles has a peerless sense for dialogue—take a humorously strange, errant detail of lumpiness in a pie-like tumor—but his real skills as a writer are on display when the small talk moves to social consciousness at a moment’s notice without sounding preordained in any way. Like other films that consider racial and class divides (Trading Places), The Brother From Another Planet so casually bridges these conversations, simply given the ability to breathe by a character who’s an outsider. He may be an alien, but that doesn’t mean goodness isn’t an innate part of his being. —Michael Snydel

Year: 1959

Director: Marcel Camus

Stars: Breno Mello, Marpessa Dawn, Lourdes de Oliveira

Runtime: 107 minutes

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The Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice has been the source of countless works of art over the centuries. Marcel Camus’ adaptation is set in a Rio de Janeiro favela and features a brilliant soundtrack by Tom Jobim and Luiz Bonfa. Brenno Melo plays Orfeu, a talented guitarist in a somewhat reluctant engagement to Mira (Lourdes de Oliveira) who falls in love with Eurydice (Marpessa Dawn). Eurydice is taken from him by Death. Orfeu tries to get her back, fails, and is killed by the jilted Mira. It’s an ancient story and Camus does a marvelous job of making it new and fresh in its recontextualization. The samba and bossa nova music are befitting of mythology’s greatest singer-songwriter, and the production is stylish and colorful and full of heart. Visually lush and ebullient, this is a film to roll around in, not to be overly cerebral about. Lavishly sensuous, with stunning cinematography and a soundtrack to die for (and come back from Hades to hear all over again). —Amy Glynn

Year: 1931

Director: Charlie Chaplin

Stars: Charles Chaplin, Virginia Cherrill, Harry Myers

Runtime: 86 minutes

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In his later years, Charlie Chaplin was known for bringing pathos into his comedy whenever he had the opportunity. City Lights is the movie where he earns every bit of it. While its structure resembles Chaplin’s usual picaresque format, there’s more of a deliberate purpose as the tramp tries to help a poor, blind flower girl, played adorably by Virginia Cherrill. Harry Myers also deserves a mention for his performance as the millionaire who’s generous when he’s drunk and can’t remember his good deeds when he’s sober.

Year: 1925

Director: Sergei Eisenstein

Stars: Maksim Shtraukh, Grigori Aleksandrov, Aleksandr Antonov

Runtime: 81 minutes

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While Sergei Eisenstein is best known for his theories on and use of montage, Strike is most engaging for its dazzling camera trickery. Eisenstein shoots reflections, brings still photos to life and dramatically captures the ill-fated attempt of workers to rise against their exploitative employers. Of course, he still gets in his trademark pointed editing, such as juxtaposing the strikers with the rich factory heads who are “considering” the workers’ demands.

Year: 1976

Director: Barbara Kopple

Runtime: 104 minutes

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Kentucky, 1974. Brookside coal miners have tried to unionize, and their company, fearing a domino effect, refuses to sign their contract with the union, setting a 10-month strike into motion. Barbara Kopple and her mostly female crew made their Oscar-winning documentary after spending years with the miners, bravely following them to the picket line in spite of threats from company “scabs.” As a result, the scenes Kopple and her crew are privy to are riveting; she is knocked sideways in a hail of bullets, and witness to the solidarity as well as the squabbles of the tough-minded coalition of miner’s wives. It seems prescient that so much of the focus in Harlan County, USA is on women; Kopple seems interested in the ways deeply traditional portions of the U.S. still contained powerful matriarchal figures—women with voices and real political agency. Combining plaintive protest song with displays of the miners’ abject poverty, Kopple underlines the need for Brookside mining company to improve its workers’ living conditions—or else. —Christina Newland

Year: 1997

Director: Abbas Kiarostami

Stars: Homayoun Ershadi

Runtime: 100 minutes

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An existential tone poem of exasperating pace and deliberation, Taste of Cherry takes the long way in almost every conceivable fashion. Kiarostami stages a bare minimum of plot in his favorite setting—a moving vehicle—his middle-aged protagonist driving around the dusty roads of the Northern Iranian village of Koker. Mr. Badii (Homayoun Ershadi), a Range Rover-driving stoic, surveys stranger after stranger, inviting a few into his car to discuss a low-effort, high-paying job. He needs help committing suicide.

Year: 1990

Director: Abbas Kiarostami

Stars: Hossein Sabzian, Abolfazi Ahankhah, Mahrokh Ahankhah

Runtime: 97 minutes

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Like the incident at the heart of Close-Up, the film itself is something of a well-intentioned con. Hoping only to clarify, and never exploit, Abbas Kiarostami hybridizes the documentary form, asking the people embroiled in an odd bit of tabloid fodder to play themselves. When we engage with art, Kiarostami asks—truly relate to it—aren’t we making it a part of ourselves? And so, through the story of how an impoverished film buff named Hossein Sabzian took on the identity of Iranian filmmaker Mohsen Makhmalbaf in order to ingratiate himself with the admiration and friendship of an upper-middle-class Tehran family, Kiarostami allows Sabzian to finally make the art he never thought he could. Cultivated via interviews, courtroom scenes and seamlessly integrated retellings in Kiarostami’s own words, Close-Up’s sense of truth and so-called “fraud” is hopelessly blurred. By the film’s conclusion, in which Sabzian’s story comes full circle and he finally meets the real Makhmalbaf, the intentions behind the impostor’s actions may still be unclear, yet the authenticity of his character feels calmly complete. —D.S.

Year: 1970

Director: Bernardo Bertolucci

Stars: Jean-Louis Trintignant, Stefania Sandrelli, Gastone Moschin

Runtime: 113 minutes

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Before The Conformist, Bertolucci had always been a master stylist, but here he worked within the strictures of noir and—excuse my hyperbole—made something of a perfect film. Proving that even the most common means of cinematic pulp could be used to transcendent ends, the director’s efforts found popular praise, garnering him both Oscar and Golden Globe nominations (among many), and paving the way for his riskier arthouse fare. Seemingly the director’s most political film, what it embodies more than an overt condemnation of fascism is a near peerless use of space, light and shadow to mirror an architecture of the mind, wherein an Italian bureaucrat (Jean-Louis Trintignant) mired within Mussolini’s fascist dictatorship must decide between playing by the rules or carving out his own identity.—Dom Sinacola

Year: 2008

Director: Olivier Assayas

Stars: Toni Servillo, Salvatore Abruzzese, Gianfelice Imparato

Runtime: 103 minutes

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After making several films about cat women who jet across the globe and slink through buildings of glass and steel, Olivier Assayas returns to the lower-key interests of his earlier films with Summer Hours. When Hélène (Edith Scob) reunites with her grown, far-flung children at their old home in rural France, the siblings remember growing up on the estate. And when she dies shortly thereafter, they must decide what to do with the house and its contents now that they’ve all moved on. Films about families often depict melancholy souls who reach under old beds for shoeboxes of curled photos and yellowing mash notes. Assayas has made an entire film around that moment—it’s a meditation on how objects carry history, how they reflect our decaying bones, how they sometimes outlive us. The film ends beautifully with a rockin’ party thrown by Hélène’s granddaughter on the sprawling estate: It’s a last gasp for the family home but also a poignant glimpse of a new generation claiming old spaces. —Robert Davis

Year: 1959

Director: Robert Bresson

Stars: Martin LaSalle, Marika Green, Pierre Leymarie

Runtime: 76 minutes

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The Crime and Punishment-inspired Pickpocket is of a piece with Bresson’s previous masterpiece, 1956’s A Man Escaped. Both hold a single-minded focus on the richly detailed world of the lead character, in this case an aspiring criminal who thinks he’s extraordinary enough to take money from others without any concern for morality or the law. That titular pickpocket, Michel (intentionally played with no emotion by first time actor Martin LaSalle), elevates his love of theft above any of his personal relationships, turning it into an almost euphoric act despite his stone-faced exterior, and one that ultimately leaves him alone. Driven primarily by LaSalle’s narration, Pickpocket is a hermetically sealed glimpse into one criminal’s life, and a dispassionate treatise on morality and responsibility. —Garrett Martin

Year: 1926

Director: Lotte Reiniger

Runtime: 65 minutes

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Lotte Reiniger spent three years moving back-lit cardboard cutouts around to make this animated feature adaptation of the ancient Arabian Nights stories. The characters move with their own unique rhythms, taking on an otherworldly feel. The silhouette format naturally limited what could be communicated via facial details and the like, but that didn’t stop Reiniger from using her careful craftsmanship and design skills to create emotionally expressive body language.

Year: 1972

Director: Luis Buñuel

Stars: Fernando Rey, Jean-Pierre Cassel, Paul Frankeur

Runtime: 101 minutes

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Buñuel’s most commercially successful film (it even bested Belle de Jour), The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie took the 1973 Oscar for Best Foreign Film and top honors from the National Society of Film Critics. Like many of his films, this surrealist comedy revels in Buñuel’s preoccupations with ideas of social status, ego and human veneer, structured as a thematically linked succession of thwarted dinner parties and four characters’ dreams, wherein violence and banality coexist seemingly unaware of one another, facades and fears engage in complex interplay, and Buñuel deploys his obsession with bondage in some magnificently weird ways. The grotesque and the flat-out ridiculous collide again and again throughout the virtually plotless The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, which uses the cynical juxtaposition of opulent and horrific images to give us a classic surrealist commentary on social charades. —Amy Glynn

Year: 1945

Director: Marcel Carné

Stars: Arletty, Jean-Louis Barrault, Pierre Brasseur

Runtime: 190 minutes

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This is the movie Francois Truffaut said he’d revoke his entire oeuvre to have directed. The very fact of its existence seems to contribute to its rather magical quality. (it was filmed in 1945 during the Nazi occupation of France, which of course created significant obstacles for director Marcel Carné.) A historical piece set in the 1820s Paris theater world, it centers on an enigmatic performer named Garence (Arletty) and four men who are drawn to her, each for slightly different reasons. Only one, a mime named Deburau (Jean-Louis Barrault), has pure intentions: Naturally, he’s the one who gets hurt. Les Enfants du Paradis is a tale of grand passion between men and women, between actors and audiences and between actors and the stages they inhabit—epic, lavish, tragic, enchanting, a film with enormous style. —Amy Glynn

Year: 1995

Director: Claude Chabrol

Stars: Sandrine Bonnaire, Isabelle Huppert, Jacqueline Bisset

Runtime: 112 minutes

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Director Claude Chabrol is often referred to as the French Hitchcock, but a film like the unsettling La Ceremonie reveals the distinct difference between the two filmmakers. Though Chabrol, like many French New Wave directors, is an admitted devotee of the suspense master (having authored a study of Hitchcock’s work with Eric Rohmer), he went on to develop his own, more understated style. While La Ceremonie is a tale of suspense and psychological drama, it also functions as a portrait of class warfare and a subtle character study. Catherine (Jacqueline Bisset) hires Sophie (Sandrine Bonnaire) as a maid to her family’s estate outside a small French village. The family is initially pleased with Sophie’s hard work until her increasing isolation and clandestine illiteracy create a widening gap with her employers. When a nosy postal worker (Isabelle Huppert) befriends her, the tension begins to slowly rise, leading to a shocking climax. However, anyone seeking Hitchcockian thrills will likely be disappointed. Where Hitchcock built his suspense through mounting stakes in an inherently suspenseful situation (mistaken identity, the early introduction of a sociopath, etc.), Chabrol lets a languid pace and socially awkward interactions establish an unsettling tone. It’s the offhanded nature of the final violence that makes the film so effective. —Tim Sheridan

Year: 1946

Director: Jean Cocteau

Stars: Jean Marais, Josette Day, Mila Parély

Runtime: 93 minutes

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Before there were Jerry Orbach and Angela Lansbury voicing animated animate household items, there was Jean Cocteau. This story’s been with us since the 18th century and rendered in countless iterations, so I’ll forego the plot summary and just say: From the fourth-wall-breaking preamble, in which the director entreats the audience to approach the film with inner-child-forward faith in the magic of fairy tales, to the end, Beauty and the Beast remains a treasure of subtle imagery, mesmerizing music, baroque opulence, sexual intensity and total indulgence in fantasy, aided by Jean Marais (Beast) and Josette Day (Belle) delivering enchanting performances. The themes explored here are traditional fairy tale tropes: innocence and greed, the transformative power of love, the fear of the unknown, magic. Cocteau was a celebrated poet as well as a filmmaker, and this is a strong example of how the two crafts inform one another, in the way it harnesses imagery to create metaphorical connections. Weird and powerful filmmaking. —Amy Glynn

Year: 1988

Director: Claire Denis

Stars: Isaach De Bankolé, Giulia Boschi, François Cluzet

Runtime: 104 minutes

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Praising Chocolat, Claire Denis’ first film and a semi-autobiographical story about a white French family living in colonial Africa, Roger Ebert wrote, “It is made with the complexity and subtlety of a great short story, and it assumes an audience that can understand what a strong flow of sex can exist between two people who barely even touch each other.” Such a statement might surprise those who’ve seen the movie, since it neither shows nor overtly discusses sex, but he’s right: The unsaid words in Chocolat could fill volumes. The movie compares that part of the world’s racial divide with the horizon, a steady line separating the sky from the earth. You walk toward it, and it continually moves back. Of all the characters in the movie, the family’s African servant Protée (Isaach De Bankole) best understands the social rules under which everyone lives, but the movie conveys his enormously complex outlook with very little dialogue. He’s a nearly silent presence in a house full of chatter. Chocolat is a movie for adults, in the very best sense. Such maturity might be expected from someone who made her first film at the age of 40, and then after she’d worked as an assistant director for such legendary filmmakers as Jacques Rivette, Wim Wenders and Jim Jarmusch. Denis is the co-writer of all her films, and a wide variety of resources provide inspiration—from Melville and Faulkner to her own experiences growing up in Africa and France. She combines all this in films that are both incredibly cohesive and truly cinematic. Where a novelist might describe what a character is thinking, Denis will convey something similar in a fleeting shot with a nuanced perspective. —Robert Davis

Year: 1993

Director: Krzysztof Kieslowski

Stars: Juliette Binoche, Benoit Régent

Runtime: 104 minutes

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Using the colors blue, white and red as the focus of his “Trois Couleurs” trilogy, Krzysztof Kieslowski manifests the ideals of the French Republic—liberty, equality, fraternity—through zealous accuracy. The atmospheres presented in each film are highlighted by the scores written by Zbigniew Preisner, Blue probably being the most important of all, musically. In this first entry, the viewer is introduced to Julie de Courcy (Juliette Binoche), the sole survivor of a car crash in which her husband and daughter were killed. Her husband was the famous composer Oliver Benoit (Benoit Régent), who had been working on a score to celebrate the European unity at the end of the Cold War, and Oliver’s music accompanies Julie’s daily struggles, taking on different tones depending on the circumstances surrounding her. Following her family’s death, as an act of defiance, Julie destroys the score, rids herself of all her possessions and moves to Paris, avoiding all memories of the past—taking only her daughter’s blue chandelier. In each film of the trilogy, one object links them to the past: the blue chandelier, the bust of the protagonist’s lost love in White, and in Red a fountain pen which plays an important role. A recurring image seen throughout Blue is that of people falling, suggesting that of all of the films, Julie’s process of letting go, of finding the “freedom” of the trilogy’s three ideals, may be the most emotionally obliterating. —Roxanne Sancto

Year: 1973

Director: René Laloux

Stars: Jennifer Drake, Eric Baugin, Jean Topart, Yves Barsacq

Runtime: 72 minutes

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It doesn’t matter if you’re watching René Laloux’s excellent, eccentric Fantastic Planet for the first time or the fortieth, under the influence or stone sober: The film is such a one-of-a-kind oddity in cinema that each viewing feels like its own wholly unique experience. Put simply, there’s nothing quite like it. If you’ve yet to see this masterwork of 1970s psychedelia-meets-social-commentary, you’re missing out. If you have seen it, chances are you haven’t seen anything quite like it since, because there isn’t much in animated cinema to match it. The closest you’ll get is Terry Gilliam’s paper strip animation stylings in Monty Python’s Flying Circus, or maybe the still painting approach of Eiji Yamamoto’s Belladonna of Sadness. Neither of these equate with Fantastic Planet’s visual scheme, though, which just underscores its individuality. Where does a movie like Fantastic Planet come from? How does it even get made? Laloux has offered few answers over the years, though the documentary Laloux Sauvage holds some insight into how his mind works. Maybe the answers aren’t worth pursuing in the first place, and maybe the best way to understand Fantastic Planet is just to watch it, and then watch it again. —Andy Crump

Year: 1982

Director: Jean Painlevé

Runtime: 27 minutes

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Jean Painlevé’s art saw artistry and a distinct aesthetic as inseparable from documentation of animal life. This is exemplified best in Square, his final public film which, after years of voiceover-only appearances, at last featured the director on camera. Painlevé is repeatedly shown in a local park teaching children about the habits and history of the common pigeons who surround humanity. A scene of the children imitating the pigeons’ odd movements is simply delightful. Classic techniques like slow motion, reverse motion, and long close-ups are used to not only teach the viewer the history and features of the birds, but to change common perception of them. Pigeons are often stereotyped as dirty and mindless, but the film photographs them at play with a ball (complete with excited play-by-play commentary), mating and enduring lonely exile from the humans they once served. The final sequence of the birds flying is a classic Painlevé moment: Humans seeing a familiar part of the natural world transform before their eyes into something alien, and often quite beautiful.—C.M. Crockford

Year: 1939

Director: Jean Renoir

Stars: Nora Gregor, Paulette Dubost, Mila Parély

Runtime: 106 minutes

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When Rules of the Game—Jean Renoir’s angry satire against the contempt the bourgeoisie displays for the working class—was first shown to an audience, a man who heard of the film’s supposed communist message tried to start a fire. In an interview that can be found on the film’s Criterion release, Renoir tells this story, adding that if someone is willing to burn down a theater to destroy your work, you must have done something right. Rules of the Game operates as an ensemble melodrama about the various secret and not-so-secret love affairs between a group of upper-crust stereotypes, but underneath this straight genre veneer lies a brutally honest takedown of ruling class apathy. Renoir meticulously and gradually exposes his characters’ narcissism, until the film’s climax presents us with a sociopathic choice made between supposed best friends. Yet, as much as he obviously sympathizes with the plight of the working class serving the rich, Renoir doesn’t let them off the hook either, portraying their impulsive and brutish behavior as potentially one of the reasons behind their station in life. Despite all of that, Rules of the Game is not a joyless experience, but a refreshingly honest take on romance between classes—as well as an early cinematic exploration and exposing of the intractable human nature behind income inequality and class warfare. —Oktay Ege Kozak

Year: 2020

Director: David Osit

Runtime: 93 minutes

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Musa Hadid only addresses David Osit’s camera once throughout all of Mayor, simply asking if Osit knows whether Americans understand what’s really happening there, in the city of Ramallah in occupied Palestine, or not. Osit replies quietly, “I don’t know.” What’s happening there is never stated plainly, but instead described through the exigencies of Mayor Hadid’s everyday job, which, as he tells countless citizens, foreign visitors and press people, entails ensuring that the municipality takes care of its community’s basic needs. He meets with sheep farmers whose land is filling with sewage due to the Israeli settlements increasingly hogging the fringes that loom uphill of the town; he debates with his staff whether their Christmas tree, typically a centerpiece of seasonal festivities, should bear a political message opposing Trump’s decision to move the U.S. Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem; he meets with German cadres to promote sisterhood between metropolitan centers, only to have to explain why they simply can’t just cooperate with the Israelis to promote confidence in outside investors. These are responsibilities that are in the job description, and Hadid fulfills his obligations with the accessibility and patience of someone who believes in what he does, 20 or so months in his tenure chronicled by Osit’s fly-on-the-wall documentary. Though we only watch violence from a distance, and though Mayor Hadid’s quotidian often borders on the depressingly mundane (until a breathless climax involving encroaching Israeli soldiers), Osit elegantly assembles a portrait of leadership—confident, caring and above all committed to the people—that feels genuinely alien to the American experience today. —Dom Sinacola

Year: 1970

Director: Eric Rohmer

Stars: Jean-Claude Brialy, Aurora Cornu, Béatrice Romand

Runtime: 106 minutes

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Eric Rohmer’s 1970 Claire’s Knee—part New Wave, part standalone curiosity—has a bit of a strange plot: A diplomat vacationing in the French Alps (Jean-Claude Brialy) becomes obsessed with touching the knee of a local teenage girl (Laurence De Monaghan). I wish that description sounded less uncomfortable and borderline perverse, but I’d hasten to add that this desire does not represent the substance of the film. Instead, Rohmer’s produced an aching look at the passage of time, and the melancholy produced by the interplay between love and obsession. Though the protagonist here is not a monster of Humbert Humbert’s ilk, the way Rohner evokes these emotions is reminiscent of Lolita, in the sense that sexuality is only a subtext for something deeper. I’ve never seen a film with more beautiful pacing, that accomplishes such a modest plot turn with such patient, inexorable rhythm—it’s no surprise that the New York Times’ Vincent Canby called this “something close to a perfect film.” —Shane Ryan

Year: 1967

Director: Jacques Tati

Stars: Jacques Tati, Barbara Dennek, Georges Montant

Runtime: 106 minutes

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Excepting people with rural dispositions, we’ve all visited unfamiliar cities at one time or another, puttering about their streets in discombobulated states. That experience is the core of Jacques Tati’s Playtime, his fourth venture as his most famous character, the bumbling Monsieur Hulot, here taking a jaunt to Paris and finding it unrecognizable on his arrival. He understands Paris as an abstract idea and as a place in his memories, but he can’t get his head around the Paris of the film’s present tense. In Playtime, any metropolitan city in Europe could stand in for Paris. Only fleeting glimpses of La Ville-Lumière reminds us of Tati’s chosen backdrop, and in those instances we feel, as Hulot does, a deep melancholy, a wistfulness for a locus of culture and romanticism long sentimentalized by the movies, and utter despondency at the implications of its cold modernization in Playtime’s frames. If this can happen to Paris, it can happen to any city we hold dear in our hearts. Make no mistake, this is an uproarious comedy and a towering work of cinema, but it’s Tati’s embedded sense of loss that echoes the loudest. —Andy Crump

Year: 1955

Director: Satyajit Ray

Stars: Subir Banerjee, Kanu Banerjee, Karuna Banerjee

Runtime: 125 minutes

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Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali is, depending on who you ask, either the saddest movie ever made or one of the saddest, and if you don’t believe the former then you likely believe the latter (unless you are made of stone, but aside from rock golems and Republicans, people tend to be made of flesh and blood). But whether the film makes you weep more or less is, perhaps, besides the point. When we talk about the classics of cinema, we talk about influence, and one note worth making about influence is that it comes in all shapes and sizes: Some movies have impact on a micro scale, others on a macro scale. Pather Panchali’s influence may be best evinced on a micro scale, in specific relation to Indian cinema, presenting a watershed moment that sparked the Parallel Cinema movement and altered the texture of the country’s films forevermore. This, again, isn’t proof of Pather Panchali’s actual substance, though let’s be realistic here: Ray’s masterpiece doesn’t need to prove anything to anyone. It’s extraordinary on its authentic artistic merits, an aching, vital movie crafted to transmute the harshest rigors of a childhood lived in rural India into narrative. Maybe it’s presumptuous for an American critic with no frame of reference for Pather Panchali’s cultural context to describe the film as “true to life,” but Ray is so good at capturing life with his camera that we come to know, to understand, the life of young Apu, regardless of who we are or where we come from, and isn’t that just the absolute definition of cinema’s transporting power? —Andy Crump

Year: 1977

Director: Wes Craven

Stars: Suze Lanier-Bramlett, Robert Houston, Martin Speer

Runtime: 90 minutes

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Seven years before A Nightmare on Elm Street made Wes Craven a household name, he was crafting a grindhouse classic in The Hills Have Eyes. It shares some DNA with his hard-to-watch revenge film The Last House on the Left, but it’s a far better film overall, with a tighter story. You probably know the basics: A family on vacation blunders into a stretch of the desert where they really shouldn’t be and fall victim to a band of bestial hill people, with the weathered, unnatural face of Michael Berryman front and center. It received an X-rating on first release, which isn’t too surprising—this is a movie where cannibals steal a baby so they can eat it, after all. It’s the sort of elemental good vs. evil story that we all fear, in the back of our minds, when we venture to the edges of the map and know how vulnerable we are away from the comforts of civilization.—Jim Vorel

Year: 1953

Director: Yasujiro Ozu

Stars: Chishu Ryu, Chieko Higashiyama, Setsuko Hara

Runtime: 137 minutes

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Tokyo Story could be described as a film about regrets. It could also be described as a film about disappointment, or the speed at which families drift apart, or modernity’s absolute indifference to custom and tradition and the old ways. But maybe just save yourself some time and some word count and describe it as a film about life, orchestrated by one of cinema’s most revered masters, Yasujiro Ozu, a director who spent his career making exquisitely calibrated but deceptively simple films. You don’t need to be an insufferable cinephile to enjoy an Ozu movie, especially Tokyo Story, undoubtedly his most accessible, though it does help; this makes him a great gateway filmmaker for anyone looking to increase their appreciation of cinema, and Tokyo Story his gateway film. Its aesthetics are pristine, its performances poignant and powerful, but the most impactful quality Ozu brings to his narrative of intergenerational divide is the passage of time, hours, days, weeks, months, years, all neatly articulated in two plus hours of running time. By the time it all ends, you’ll feel like you’ve lived a life with the Hirayama clan, too. —Andy Crump

Year: 1951

Director: Ishiro Honda

Stars: Akira Takarada, Momoko Kochi, Akihiko Hirata

Runtime: 96 minutes

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It’s amazing, isn’t it, how something so seemingly childish and flat-out dopey on paper could be as substantive, and as enduring, as Ishiro Honda’s Godzilla? Hire a couple of actors and have them alternate donning an unwieldy rubber monster suit, and then let them stomp all over a miniature Tokyo set, smashing buildings with wild abandon, and presto: Just like that, you’ve made unexpected movie history. However silly Godzilla sounds when broken down into its component parts, it remains every bit as meaningful today as it did back in 1954, less than a decade after the U.S. of A. dropped nuclear ordnance on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a colossal and nightmarish metaphor for the horrors of nuclear warfare. The King of the Monsters’ first major outing spawned legions of imitators and about as many sequels and spin-offs and reboots—we’re still making Godzilla movies, after all, and will continue to if Warner Bros. has anything to say about it – but there’s only one Godzilla movie that matters, Honda’s, a film awash in the fears of a nation and ablaze with radioactive nihilism. —Andy Crump

Year: 1939

Director: John Ford

Stars: John Wayne, Claire Trevor, Andy Devine

Runtime: 96 minutes

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And just like that, with one swift zoom shot, John Ford gave John Wayne his breakthrough role and reintroduced American audiences to the man who would become one of their most lasting movie icons. Two Johns, making it happen. Stagecoach isn’t exactly a John Wayne movie despite the fact that John Wayne is in it; this was before the days of The Searchers, of She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, of The Quiet Man, even of Hondo, movies that each helped shape Wayne’s persona and forge his screen legend bit by bit. In Stagecoach, he’s just a man with a rifle, a mission of vengeance and a soft spot for a prostitute named Dallas. Rather than the tradition of Wayne, the film belongs to the tradition of strangers on a journey; it’s about an unlikely and incongruous grouping of humans banding together to make it to a common destination. They ride a dangerous road, but Ford’s great gift as a filmmaker is his knack for making peril buoyant and entertaining, and in Stagecoach he does both effortlessly. —Andy Crump

Year: 1949

Director: Yasujiro Ozu

Stars: Chishu Ryu, Setsuko Hara, Yumeji Tsukioka

Runtime: 108 minutes

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If you want to know what an artist’s critique of postwar censorship in Allied-occupied Japan looks like, just watch Yasujiro Ozu’s Late Spring and keep your eyes peeled for the Coca Cola sign. Late Spring isn’t about American control of Japanese territories in the 1940s; rather, it’s about a father and daughter going about their business within that world, a film that honors minutiae and celebrates the mundane with superlative grace. (It’s also the blueprint for an entire niche of movies, the shomin-geki, a genre in Japanese film, television and theater that favors realism and which portrays the lives of working class Japanese families.) But folded within the tale of Shukichi Somiya (Chishu Ryu) and Noriko Somiya (Setsuko Hara) lie a handful of barbs aimed at censorship protocols imposed upon Ozu during Late Spring’s production, which is itself a nod to the kind of tension Japanese citizens had to live with every single day of the occupation. The truest mark of the film’s brilliance is its accessibility: Even if you know zip about postwar history, you’ll be dazzled by Ozu’s unparalleled discipline as a filmmaker, charmed by Hara’s wonderful performance, and moved by the themes present in the fabric of the narrative, especially its painful depiction of what it means to let go of the ones we love most. Such is Ozu’s skill as a director that he can devastate us just by filming a man peeling an apple, a perfect image that captures Late Spring’s compassion with heartbreaking clarity. —Andy Crump

Year: 1949

Director: Fritz Lang

Stars: Rudolf Klein-Rogge, Otto Wernicke, Oskar Beregi, Sr.

Runtime: 120 minutes

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Psychologist Stanley Milgram’s landmark study Obedience To Authority suggested human beings are easily led to do horrible things, especially when a domineering figure is calling the shots. Years earlier, director Fritz Lang came to a similar conclusion with his masterful The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933), now available in a fine two-DVD set. By the time Lang made Testament he’d been incorporating the figure of evil authority into many of his films. He contributed to script development for The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) and went on to explore the theme in Dr. Mabuse: The Gambler (1922), Metropolis (1927) and M (1931). But for Testament, Lang revived the figure of Mabuse, expanding the role of the twisted überman, whose mad genius and hypnotic power prove irresistible even to medical science. The film begins with Mabuse confined to an asylum, spending his days in a catatonic state and scribbling his plans for an “empire of crime.” As his blueprint for anarchy begins to come to life in a string of illegal acts, the dogged Inspector Lohmann (Otto Wernicke reprising his colorful role from M) is called in to crack the case. Lang’s sly incorporation of elements from another great German commentary on totalitarianism, Dracula, makes his intentions all the clearer (including hypnotism and the clear parallel to the lunatic Renfield in the role of Hofmeister). It’s no surprise Joseph Goebbels immediately banned the film, causing Lang to flee Germany and the Third Reich. With impressive bonus material, such as filmed interviews with Lang, supporting actor Rudolf Schündler and Mabuse expert Michael Farin, the set offers a particularly enlightening view into one of the great fascist cautionary tales ever committed to film. It doesn’t hurt that it’s also an endlessly entertaining potboiler. —Tim Sheridan

Year: 2008

Director: Matteo Garrone

Stars: Toni Servillo, Salvatore Abruzzese, Gianfelice Imparato

Runtime: 137 minutes

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Gritty like The Godfather or the work of Martin Scorsese, Gomorrah depicts five microcosmic stories of the brutal underground mafia scene in Naples. The cast of largely untrained actors only enhances the film’s grim authenticity, and that authenticity is bolstered by the fact that the film’s source material, the bestselling book of same name, required author Roberto Saviano to get a permanent police escort. Harrowing in its matter-of-factness, the Academy criminally overl

20 Years Aboard the International Space Station

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Twenty years ago today, three astronauts stepped aboard the International Space Station. Since then, the I.S.S. has hosted hundreds of residents from many countries. This is a history of our first 20 years of living aboard.

The Space Station During the past two decades, the I.S.S. grew from a small residence to a sprawling collection of laboratory modules, stowage platforms and crew living quarters. The Passengers Although the first piece of the I.S.S. reached orbit in 1998, it took another two years for the first permanent crew to arrive at the station. Since then, the I.S.S. has been continuously inhabited for two decades. Every I.S.S. visitor is shown on this timeline. Expedition crew members have an asterisk * after their name. Zenith 1 Truss Structural addition to ISS • Oct. 14 Soyuz TM-31 Launched Oct. 31 (Docked Nov. 2) Yuri Gidzenko* Sergei Krikalev* William Shepherd* Progress M1-4 Uncrewed supply ship • Nov. 16 Space Shuttle 97 Endeavour • Nov. 30 Michael Bloomfield Marc Garneau Brent Jett Jr. Carlos Noriega Joe Tanner Port 6 Truss and Solar Arrays Dec. 3 Diamonds mark crew participating in spacewalks The Space Station During the past two decades, the I.S.S. grew from a small residence to a sprawling collection of laboratory modules, stowage platforms and crew living quarters. The Passengers Although the first piece of the I.S.S. reached orbit in 1998, it took another two years for the first permanent crew to arrive at the station. Since then, the I.S.S. has been continuously inhabited for two decades. Every I.S.S. visitor is shown on this timeline. Expedition crew members have an asterisk * after their name. Zenith 1 Truss Structural addition to ISS • Oct. 14 Soyuz TM-31 Launched Oct. 31 (Docked Nov. 2) Yuri Gidzenko* Sergei Krikalev* William Shepherd* Progress M1-4 Uncrewed supply ship • Nov. 16 Space Shuttle 97 Endeavour • Nov. 30 Michael Bloomfield Marc Garneau Brent Jett Jr. Carlos Noriega Joe Tanner Port 6 Truss and Solar Arrays Dec. 3 Diamonds mark crew participating in spacewalks The Passengers Although the first piece of the I.S.S. reached orbit in 1998, it took another two years for the first permanent crew to arrive at the station. Since then, the I.S.S. has been continuously inhabited for two decades. Every I.S.S. visitor is shown on this timeline. Expedition crew members have an asterisk * after their name. The Space Station Additions to the I.S.S. are shown on the timeline to the left. New construction is shown in white. Uncrewed supply ship arrivals are shown as smaller dots, in the color of their country of origin: Soyuz TM-31 Launched Oct. 31 (Docked Nov. 2) Yuri Gidzenko* Sergei Krikalev* William Shepherd* Space Shuttle 97 Endeavour • Nov. 30 Michael Bloomfield Marc Garneau Brent Jett Jr. Carlos Noriega Joe Tanner Diamonds mark crew participating in spacewalks

The Early Years The first two years aboard the I.S.S. were a flurry of activity and record-breaking events. Astronauts from all over the world visited the station for the first time, including people from Canada and Italy. Some records made in these earliest years remain unbroken today. Susan Helms and James Voss still hold the record for the longest spacewalk — almost nine hours, completed in March 2001.

2001 Space Shuttle 98 Atlantis • Feb. 7 Ken Cockrell Robert Curbeam Marsha Ivins Tom Jones Mark Polansky Destiny Laboratory Module • Feb. 10 Progress M-44 Feb. 26 Space Shuttle 102 Discovery • March 8 Susan Helms* James Kelly Paul Richards Andrew Thomas Yuri Usachev* James Voss* James Wetherbee External Stowage Platform 1 March 13 Space Shuttle 100 Endeavour • April 19 Jeffrey Ashby Umberto Guidoni Chris Hadfield Yuri Lonchakov Scott Parazynski John Phillips Kent Rominger Canadarm 2 April 22 Soyuz TM-32 April 28 Yuri Baturin Talgat Musabayev Dennis Tito Progress M1-6 May 20 June Space Shuttle 104 Atlantis • July 12 Mike Gernhardt Charles Hobaugh Janet Kavandi Steve Lindsey James Reilly Quest Airlock July 15 Aug. Space Shuttle 105 Discovery • Aug. 10 Daniel Barry Frank Culbertson* Vladimir Dezhurov* Patrick Forrester Scott Horowitz Frederick Sturckow Mikhail Tyurin* Progress M-45 Aug. 21 Pirs Docking Compartment • Sept. 16 Oct. Soyuz TM-33 Oct. 21 Viktor Afanasyev Claudie Haigneré Konstantin Kozeyev Progress M1-7 Nov. 26 Dec. Space Shuttle 108 Endeavour • Dec. 5 Daniel Bursch* Linda Godwin Dominic Gorie Mark Kelly Yuri Onufrienko* Daniel Tani Carl Walz* 2001 Space Shuttle 98 Atlantis • Feb. 7 Ken Cockrell Robert Curbeam Marsha Ivins Tom Jones Mark Polansky Destiny Laboratory Module • Feb. 10 Progress M-44 Feb. 26 Space Shuttle 102 Discovery • March 8 Susan Helms* James Kelly Paul Richards Andrew Thomas Yuri Usachev* James Voss* James Wetherbee External Stowage Platform 1 March 13 Space Shuttle 100 Endeavour • April 19 Jeffrey Ashby Umberto Guidoni Chris Hadfield Yuri Lonchakov Scott Parazynski John Phillips Kent Rominger Canadarm 2 April 22 Soyuz TM-32 April 28 Yuri Baturin Talgat Musabayev Dennis Tito Progress M1-6 May 20 June Space Shuttle 104 Atlantis • July 12 Mike Gernhardt Charles Hobaugh Janet Kavandi Steve Lindsey James Reilly Quest Airlock July 15 Aug. Space Shuttle 105 Discovery • Aug. 10 Daniel Barry Frank Culbertson* Vladimir Dezhurov* Patrick Forrester Scott Horowitz Frederick Sturckow Mikhail Tyurin* Progress M-45 Aug. 21 Pirs Docking Compartment • Sept. 16 Oct. Soyuz TM-33 Oct. 21 Viktor Afanasyev Claudie Haigneré Konstantin Kozeyev Progress M1-7 Nov. 26 Space Shuttle 108 Endeavour • Dec. 5 Daniel Bursch* Linda Godwin Dominic Gorie Mark Kelly Yuri Onufrienko* Daniel Tani Carl Walz* Dec. 2001 Space Shuttle 98 Atlantis • Feb. 7 Ken Cockrell Robert Curbeam Marsha Ivins Tom Jones Mark Polansky Space Shuttle 102 Discovery • March 8 Susan Helms* James Kelly Paul Richards Andrew Thomas Yuri Usachev* James Voss* James Wetherbee Space Shuttle 100 Endeavour • April 19 Jeffrey Ashby Umberto Guidoni Chris Hadfield Yuri Lonchakov Scott Parazynski John Phillips Kent Rominger Soyuz TM-32 April 28 Yuri Baturin Talgat Musabayev Dennis Tito Space Shuttle 104 Atlantis • July 12 Mike Gernhardt Charles Hobaugh Janet Kavandi Steve Lindsey James Reilly Space Shuttle 105 Discovery • Aug. 10 Daniel Barry Frank Culbertson* Vladimir Dezhurov* Patrick Forrester Scott Horowitz Frederick Sturckow Mikhail Tyurin* Soyuz TM-33 Oct. 21 Viktor Afanasyev Claudie Haigneré Konstantin Kozeyev Space Shuttle 108 Endeavour • Dec. 5 Daniel Bursch* Linda Godwin Dominic Gorie Mark Kelly Yuri Onufrienko* Daniel Tani Carl Walz*

Building a Home Between 2001 and 2002, nine structural components were attached onto the station. With the newly expanded space, astronauts began scientific experiments on topics like gene expression and the nervous system in microgravity. The early I.S.S. was also the birthplace of privately funded space travel. In April 2001, Dennis Tito paid millions of dollars for a seat on a Soyuz rocket to visit the I.S.S.

2002 Feb. Progress M1-8 March 21 Space Shuttle 110 Atlantis • April 8 Michael Bloomfield Steve Frick Lee Morin Ellen Ochoa Jerry Ross Steve Smith Rex Walheim April Starboard 0 Truss April 11 Soyuz TM-34 April 25 Yuri Gidzenko Mark Shuttleworth Roberto Vittori June Mobile Base System June 10 Space Shuttle 111 Endeavour • June 5 Franklin Chang-Diaz Ken Cockrell Valery Korzun* Paul Lockhart Philippe Perrin Sergei Treschev* Peggy Whitson* Progress M-46 June 26 Aug. Space Shuttle 112 Atlantis • Oct. 7 Jeffrey Ashby Sandy Magnus Pam Melroy Piers Sellers David Wolf Fyodor Yurchikhin Progress M1-9 Sept. 25 Oct. Starboard 1 Truss Oct. 10 Soyuz TMA-1 Oct. 30 Yuri Lonchakov Frank De Winne Sergei Zalyotin Port 1 Truss Nov. 26 Dec. Space Shuttle 113 Endeavour • Nov. 23 Ken Bowersox* Nikolai Budarin* John Herrington Paul Lockhart Michael Lopez-Alegria Don Pettit* James Wetherbee 2002 Feb. Progress M1-8 March 21 Space Shuttle 110 Atlantis • April 8 Michael Bloomfield Steve Frick Lee Morin Ellen Ochoa Jerry Ross Steve Smith Rex Walheim April Starboard 0 Truss April 11 Soyuz TM-34 April 25 Yuri Gidzenko Mark Shuttleworth Roberto Vittori June Mobile Base System June 10 Space Shuttle 111 Endeavour • June 5 Franklin Chang-Diaz Ken Cockrell Valery Korzun* Paul Lockhart Philippe Perrin Sergei Treschev* Peggy Whitson* Progress M-46 June 26 Aug. Space Shuttle 112 Atlantis • Oct. 7 Jeffrey Ashby Sandy Magnus Pam Melroy Piers Sellers David Wolf Fyodor Yurchikhin Progress M1-9 Sept. 25 Oct. Starboard 1 Truss Oct. 10 Soyuz TMA-1 Oct. 30 Yuri Lonchakov Frank De Winne Sergei Zalyotin Port 1 Truss Nov. 26 Dec. Space Shuttle 113 Endeavour • Nov. 23 Ken Bowersox* Nikolai Budarin* John Herrington Paul Lockhart Michael Lopez-Alegria Don Pettit* James Wetherbee 2002 Space Shuttle 110 Atlantis • April 8 Michael Bloomfield Steve Frick Lee Morin Ellen Ochoa Jerry Ross Steve Smith Rex Walheim Soyuz TM-34 April 25 Yuri Gidzenko Mark Shuttleworth Roberto Vittori Space Shuttle 111 Endeavour • June 5 Franklin Chang-Diaz Ken Cockrell Valery Korzun* Paul Lockhart Philippe Perrin Sergei Treschev* Peggy Whitson* Space Shuttle 112 Atlantis • Oct. 7 Jeffrey Ashby Sandy Magnus Pam Melroy Piers Sellers David Wolf Fyodor Yurchikhin Soyuz TMA-1 Oct. 30 Yuri Lonchakov Frank De Winne Sergei Zalyotin Space Shuttle 113 Endeavour • Nov. 23 Ken Bowersox* Nikolai Budarin* John Herrington Paul Lockhart Michael Lopez-Alegria Don Pettit* James Wetherbee

The Columbia Disaster But soon the activity aboard the I.S.S. dwindled to a trickle. In February 2003, seven astronauts died aboard the space shuttle Columbia as it re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere. Following the disaster, the American space shuttle program halted and the I.S.S. was supplied entirely by Russian spacecraft for two and a half years. The number of crew living aboard the I.S.S. was also reduced from three to two.

2003 Progress M-47 Feb. 2 Feb. April Soyuz TMA-2 April 26 Ed Lu* Yuri Malenchenko* June Progress M1-10 June 8 Aug. Progress M-48 Aug. 29 Oct. Soyuz TMA-3 Oct. 18 Pedro Duque Mike Foale* Aleksandr Kaleri* Dec. 2003 Progress M-47 Feb. 2 Feb. April Soyuz TMA-2 April 26 Ed Lu* Yuri Malenchenko* June Progress M1-10 June 8 Aug. Progress M-48 Aug. 29 Oct. Soyuz TMA-3 Oct. 18 Pedro Duque Mike Foale* Aleksandr Kaleri* Dec. 2003 Soyuz TMA-2 April 26 Ed Lu* Yuri Malenchenko* Soyuz TMA-3 Oct. 18 Pedro Duque Mike Foale* Aleksandr Kaleri*

The Soyuz and the Shuttle The hiatus of the shuttle program also meant that construction aboard the I.S.S. came to a halt. The 60-foot space shuttles could carry thousands of pounds of cargo, while the Soyuz was only about a third of the shuttle’s size. Although other Russian resupply vehicles like the Progress could deliver some smaller components, new construction was also hindered by the reduced size of the crew aboard the I.S.S.

2004 Progress M1-11 Jan. 29 Feb. April Soyuz TMA-4 April 19 Mike Fincke* André Kuipers Gennady Padalka* Progress M-49 May 25 June Aug. Progress M-50 Aug. 11 Oct. Soyuz TMA-5 Oct. 14 Leroy Chiao* Yuri Shargin Salizhan Sharipov* Dec. Progress M-51 Dec. 23 2004 Progress M1-11 Jan. 29 Feb. April Soyuz TMA-4 April 19 Mike Fincke* André Kuipers Gennady Padalka* Progress M-49 May 25 June Aug. Progress M-50 Aug. 11 Oct. Soyuz TMA-5 Oct. 14 Leroy Chiao* Yuri Shargin Salizhan Sharipov* Dec. Progress M-51 Dec. 23 2004 Soyuz TMA-4 April 19 Mike Fincke* André Kuipers Gennady Padalka* Soyuz TMA-5 Oct. 14 Leroy Chiao* Yuri Shargin Salizhan Sharipov*

Return to Flight The July 2005 launch was the first space shuttle mission since the Columbia disaster. In the two and a half years since the accident, the fleet was upgraded with many new features to increase safety. As part of these new procedures, this Discovery shuttle performed a backflip as it approached the I.S.S., so that astronauts aboard the space station could photograph the underside of the shuttle to check for damage.

2005 Feb. Progress M-52 Feb. 28 April Soyuz TMA-6 April 15 Sergei Krikalev* John Phillips* Roberto Vittori June Progress M-53 June 16 Space Shuttle 114 Discovery • July 26 return to flight mission Charles Camarda Eileen Collins James Kelly Wendy Lawrence Soichi Noguchi Stephen Robinson Andrew Thomas External Stowage Platform 2 July 30 Aug. Progress M-54 Sept. 8 Soyuz TMA-7 Oct. 1 Bill McArthur* Greg Olsen Valery Tokarev* Oct. Dec. Progress M-55 Dec. 21 2005 Feb. Progress M-52 Feb. 28 April Soyuz TMA-6 April 15 Sergei Krikalev* John Phillips* Roberto Vittori June Progress M-53 June 16 Space Shuttle 114 Discovery • July 26 return to flight mission Charles Camarda Eileen Collins James Kelly Wendy Lawrence Soichi Noguchi Stephen Robinson Andrew Thomas External Stowage Platform 2 July 30 Aug. Progress M-54 Sept. 8 Soyuz TMA-7 Oct. 1 Bill McArthur* Greg Olsen Valery Tokarev* Oct. Dec. Progress M-55 Dec. 21 2005 Soyuz TMA-6 April 15 Sergei Krikalev* John Phillips* Roberto Vittori Space Shuttle 114 Discovery • July 26 return to flight mission Charles Camarda Eileen Collins James Kelly Wendy Lawrence Soichi Noguchi Stephen Robinson Andrew Thomas Soyuz TMA-7 Oct. 1 Bill McArthur* Greg Olsen Valery Tokarev*

Language in Space In July 2006, Thomas Reiter became the first European astronaut to join an I.S.S. expedition. Throughout the history of the I.S.S., more than 240 individuals from 19 countries have visited the station. I.S.S. expedition members must speak at least some English and some Russian, to communicate with each other and with the mission control centers in both countries.

2006 Feb. Soyuz TMA-8 March 30 Marcos Pontes Pavel Vinogradov* Jeff Williams* April Progress M-56 April 24 June Space Shuttle 121 Discovery • July 4 Mike Fossum Mark Kelly Steve Lindsey Lisa Nowak Thomas Reiter* Piers Sellers Stephanie Wilson Progress M-57 June 24 Aug. Space Shuttle 115 Atlantis • Sept. 9 Daniel Burbank Chris Ferguson Brent Jett Jr. Steve MacLean Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper Joe Tanner Port 3/4 Truss and Solar Arrays Sept. 12 Soyuz TMA-9 Sept. 18 Anousheh Ansari Michael Lopez-Alegria* Mikhail Tyurin* Oct. Progress M-58 Oct. 23 Space Shuttle 116 Discovery • Dec. 9 Robert Curbeam Christer Fuglesang Joan Higginbotham William Oefelein Nicholas Patrick Mark Polansky Sunita Williams* Dec. Port 5 Truss Spacer Dec. 12 2006 Feb. Soyuz TMA-8 March 30 Marcos Pontes Pavel Vinogradov* Jeff Williams* April Progress M-56 April 24 June Progress M-57 June 24 Space Shuttle 121 Discovery • July 4 Mike Fossum Mark Kelly Steve Lindsey Lisa Nowak Thomas Reiter* Piers Sellers Stephanie Wilson Aug. Space Shuttle 115 Atlantis • Sept. 9 Daniel Burbank Chris Ferguson Brent Jett Jr. Steve MacLean Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper Joe Tanner Port 3/4 Truss and Solar Arrays Sept. 12 Soyuz TMA-9 Sept. 18 Anousheh Ansari Michael Lopez-Alegria* Mikhail Tyurin* Oct. Progress M-58 Oct. 23 Space Shuttle 116 Discovery • Dec. 9 Robert Curbeam Christer Fuglesang Joan Higginbotham William Oefelein Nicholas Patrick Mark Polansky Sunita Williams* Dec. Port 5 Truss Spacer Dec. 12 2006 Soyuz TMA-8 March 30 Marcos Pontes Pavel Vinogradov* Jeff Williams* Space Shuttle 121 Discovery • July 4 Mike Fossum Mark Kelly Steve Lindsey Lisa Nowak Thomas Reiter* Piers Sellers Stephanie Wilson Space Shuttle 115 Atlantis • Sept. 9 Daniel Burbank Chris Ferguson Brent Jett Jr. Steve MacLean Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper Joe Tanner Soyuz TMA-9 Sept. 18 Anousheh Ansari Michael Lopez-Alegria* Mikhail Tyurin* Space Shuttle 116 Discovery • Dec. 9 Robert Curbeam Christer Fuglesang Joan Higginbotham William Oefelein Nicholas Patrick Mark Polansky Sunita Williams*

First Marathon in Space In April 2007, Sunita Williams was one of the many runners participating in the Boston Marathon. But she was the only one running the race from space. Sunita’s official time was just under 4.5 hours, and she ran while harnessed to a special treadmill with bungee cords. 2007 was also the first year that the I.S.S. had a woman commander: Peggy Whitson, who arrived with the Soyuz TMA-11 crew in October later that same year.

2007 Progress M-59 Jan. 18 Feb. April Soyuz TMA-10 April 7 Oleg Kotov* Charles Simonyi Fyodor Yurchikhin* Progress M-60 May 12 June Space Shuttle 117 Atlantis • June 8 Clayton Anderson* Lee Archambault Patrick Forrester Danny Olivas James Reilly Frederick Sturckow Steve Swanson Starboard 3/4 Truss and Solar Arrays June 11 Progress M-61 Aug. 2 Aug. Starboard 5 Truss Spacer Aug. 11 Space Shuttle 118 Endeavour • Aug. 8 Tracy Caldwell Dyson Alvin Drew Charles Hobaugh Scott Kelly Rick Mastracchio Barbara Morgan Dave Williams External Stowage Platform 3 Aug. 14 Soyuz TMA-11 Oct. 11 Yuri Malenchenko* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor Peggy Whitson* Oct. Harmony Module Oct. 26 Space Shuttle 120 Discovery • Oct. 23 Pam Melroy Paolo Nespoli Scott Parazynski Daniel Tani* Doug Wheelock Stephanie Wilson George Zamka Dec. Progress M-62 Dec. 23 2007 Progress M-59 Jan. 18 Feb. April Soyuz TMA-10 April 7 Oleg Kotov* Charles Simonyi Fyodor Yurchikhin* Progress M-60 May 12 June Space Shuttle 117 Atlantis • June 8 Clayton Anderson* Lee Archambault Patrick Forrester Danny Olivas James Reilly Frederick Sturckow Steve Swanson Starboard 3/4 Truss and Solar Arrays June 11 Progress M-61 Aug. 2 Aug. Starboard 5 Truss Spacer Aug. 11 Space Shuttle 118 Endeavour • Aug. 8 Tracy Caldwell Dyson Alvin Drew Charles Hobaugh Scott Kelly Rick Mastracchio Barbara Morgan Dave Williams External Stowage Platform 3 Aug. 14 Soyuz TMA-11 Oct. 11 Yuri Malenchenko* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor Peggy Whitson* Oct. Harmony Module Oct. 26 Space Shuttle 120 Discovery • Oct. 23 Pam Melroy Paolo Nespoli Scott Parazynski Daniel Tani* Doug Wheelock Stephanie Wilson George Zamka Dec. Progress M-62 Dec. 23 2007 Soyuz TMA-10 April 7 Oleg Kotov* Charles Simonyi Fyodor Yurchikhin* Space Shuttle 117 Atlantis • June 8 Clayton Anderson* Lee Archambault Patrick Forrester Danny Olivas James Reilly Frederick Sturckow Steve Swanson Space Shuttle 118 Endeavour • Aug. 8 Tracy Caldwell Dyson Alvin Drew Charles Hobaugh Scott Kelly Rick Mastracchio Barbara Morgan Dave Williams Soyuz TMA-11 Oct. 11 Yuri Malenchenko* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor Peggy Whitson* Space Shuttle 120 Discovery • Oct. 23 Pam Melroy Paolo Nespoli Scott Parazynski Daniel Tani* Doug Wheelock Stephanie Wilson George Zamka

Kimchi and Ice Cream When Yi So-yeon became the first Korean astronaut on the I.S.S. in 2008, she brought along specially formulated space kimchi for the journey. Alongside their standard menu, I.S.S. astronauts often receive small treats with the arrival of each supply ship, like fresh produce and even ice cream. The I.S.S. does not have a freezer or refrigerator for food on board, so the daily fare is a mix of freeze-dried, canned and dehydrated foods.

2008 Space Shuttle 122 Atlantis • Feb. 7 Léopold Eyharts* Steve Frick Stanley Love Leland Melvin Alan Poindexter Hans Schlegel Rex Walheim Progress M-63 Feb. 5 Feb. Columbus Laboratory Module • Feb. 11 Jules Verne A.T.V. • March 8 first european spacecraft Space Shuttle 123 Endeavour • March 11 Bob Behnken Takao Doi Mike Foreman Dominic Gorie Greg Johnson Rick Linnehan Garrett Reisman* J.E.M. Logistics Module March 14 Dextre Dexterous Manipulator • March 18 April Soyuz TMA-12 April 8 Oleg Kononenko* Yi So-yeon Sergei Volkov* Progress M-64 May 14 Space Shuttle 124 Discovery • May 31 Greg Chamitoff* Mike Fossum Ron Garan Ken Ham Akihiko Hoshide Mark Kelly Karen Nyberg Kibo J.E.M. Pressurized Module June 3 June Aug. Progress M-65 Sept. 10 Oct. Soyuz TMA-13 Oct. 12 Mike Fincke* Richard Garriott Yuri Lonchakov* Space Shuttle 126 Endeavour • Nov. 14 Eric Boe Steve Bowen Chris Ferguson Shane Kimbrough Sandy Magnus* Don Pettit Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper Progress M-01M Nov. 26 Dec. 2008 Space Shuttle 122 Atlantis • Feb. 7 Léopold Eyharts* Steve Frick Stanley Love Leland Melvin Alan Poindexter Hans Schlegel Rex Walheim Progress M-63 Feb. 5 Feb. Columbus Laboratory Module • Feb. 11 Jules Verne A.T.V. • March 8 first european spacecraft Space Shuttle 123 Endeavour • March 11 Bob Behnken Takao Doi Mike Foreman Dominic Gorie Greg Johnson Rick Linnehan Garrett Reisman* J.E.M. Logistics Module March 14 Dextre Dexterous Manipulator March 18 April Soyuz TMA-12 April 8 Oleg Kononenko* Yi So-yeon Sergei Volkov* Progress M-64 May 14 Space Shuttle 124 Discovery • May 31 Greg Chamitoff* Mike Fossum Ron Garan Ken Ham Akihiko Hoshide Mark Kelly Karen Nyberg June Kibo J.E.M. Pressurized Module June 3 Aug. Progress M-65 Sept. 10 Oct. Soyuz TMA-13 Oct. 12 Mike Fincke* Richard Garriott Yuri Lonchakov* Space Shuttle 126 Endeavour • Nov. 14 Eric Boe Steve Bowen Chris Ferguson Shane Kimbrough Sandy Magnus* Don Pettit Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper Progress M-01M Nov. 26 Dec. 2008 Space Shuttle 122 Atlantis • Feb. 7 Léopold Eyharts* Steve Frick Stanley Love Leland Melvin Alan Poindexter Hans Schlegel Rex Walheim Space Shuttle 123 Endeavour • March 11 Bob Behnken Takao Doi Mike Foreman Dominic Gorie Greg Johnson Rick Linnehan Garrett Reisman* Soyuz TMA-12 April 8 Oleg Kononenko* Yi So-yeon Sergei Volkov* Space Shuttle 124 Discovery • May 31 Greg Chamitoff* Mike Fossum Ron Garan Ken Ham Akihiko Hoshide Mark Kelly Karen Nyberg Soyuz TMA-13 Oct. 12 Mike Fincke* Richard Garriott Yuri Lonchakov* Space Shuttle 126 Endeavour • Nov. 14 Eric Boe Steve Bowen Chris Ferguson Shane Kimbrough Sandy Magnus* Don Pettit Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper

The Japanese Experiment Modules In 2009, the three-part Japanese Experiment Module was finally completed. The Exposed Facility, the last piece to be installed, is a unique platform that continuously exposes science experiments to the space environment. The same year, Japan also sent their first cargo spacecraft to the I.S.S.: The Kounotori 1, named after a white stork. And Koichi Wakata became the first Japanese astronaut to live aboard as an expedition member.

2009 Feb. Progress M-66 Feb. 10 Space Shuttle 119 Discovery • March 15 Joe Acaba Dominic Antonelli Lee Archambault Ricky Arnold John Phillips Steve Swanson Koichi Wakata* Starboard 6 Truss Spacer and Solar Arrays March 19 April Soyuz TMA-14 March 26 Michael Barratt* Gennady Padalka* Charles Simonyi Progress M-02M May 7 Soyuz TMA-15 May 27 Roman Romanenko* Robert Thirsk* Frank De Winne* June J.E.M. Exposed Facility July 18 Space Shuttle 127 Endeavour • July 15 Chris Cassidy Doug Hurley Tim Kopra Tom Marshburn Julie Payette Mark Polansky David Wolf Progress M-67 July 24 Aug. Space Shuttle 128 Discovery • Aug. 28 Kevin Ford Patrick Forrester Christer Fuglesang José Hernández Danny Olivas Nicole Stott* Frederick Sturckow Kounotori 1 H.T.V. • Sept. 10 first japanese spacecraft Oct. Soyuz TMA-16 Sept. 30 Guy Laliberté Maxim Surayev* Jeff Williams* Progress M-03M Oct. 15 Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 • Nov. 12 Space Shuttle 129 Atlantis • Nov. 16 Randy Bresnik Mike Foreman Charles Hobaugh Leland Melvin Robert Satcher Barry Wilmore E.L.C. 1 Nov. 18 E.L.C. 2 Nov. 21 Dec. Soyuz TMA-17 Dec. 20 T.J. Creamer* Oleg Kotov* Soichi Noguchi* 2009 Feb. Progress M-66 Feb. 10 Space Shuttle 119 Discovery • March 15 Joe Acaba Dominic Antonelli Lee Archambault Ricky Arnold John Phillips Steve Swanson Koichi Wakata* Starboard 6 Truss Spacer and Solar Arrays March 19 April Soyuz TMA-14 March 26 Michael Barratt* Gennady Padalka* Charles Simonyi Progress M-02M May 7 Soyuz TMA-15 May 27 Roman Romanenko* Robert Thirsk* Frank De Winne* June J.E.M. Exposed Facility July 18 Space Shuttle 127 Endeavour • July 15 Chris Cassidy Doug Hurley Tim Kopra Tom Marshburn Julie Payette Mark Polansky David Wolf Progress M-67 July 24 Aug. Space Shuttle 128 Discovery • Aug. 28 Kevin Ford Patrick Forrester Christer Fuglesang José Hernández Danny Olivas Nicole Stott* Frederick Sturckow Kounotori 1 H.T.V. • Sept. 10 first japanese spacecraft Oct. Progress M-03M Oct. 15 Soyuz TMA-16 Sept. 30 Guy Laliberté Maxim Surayev* Jeff Williams* Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 • Nov. 12 Space Shuttle 129 Atlantis • Nov. 16 Randy Bresnik Mike Foreman Charles Hobaugh Leland Melvin Robert Satcher Barry Wilmore E.L.C. 1 Nov. 18 E.L.C. 2 Nov. 21 Dec. Soyuz TMA-17 Dec. 20 T.J. Creamer* Oleg Kotov* Soichi Noguchi* 2009 Space Shuttle 119 Discovery • March 15 Joe Acaba Dominic Antonelli Lee Archambault Ricky Arnold John Phillips Steve Swanson Koichi Wakata* Soyuz TMA-14 March 26 Michael Barratt* Gennady Padalka* Charles Simonyi Soyuz TMA-15 May 27 Roman Romanenko* Robert Thirsk* Frank De Winne* japanese exposed facility Space Shuttle 127 Endeavour • July 15 Chris Cassidy Doug Hurley Tim Kopra Tom Marshburn Julie Payette Mark Polansky David Wolf Space Shuttle 128 Discovery • Aug. 28 Kevin Ford Patrick Forrester Christer Fuglesang José Hernández Danny Olivas Nicole Stott* Frederick Sturckow kounotori 1 Soyuz TMA-16 Sept. 30 Guy Laliberté Maxim Surayev* Jeff Williams* Space Shuttle 129 Atlantis • Nov. 16 Randy Bresnik Mike Foreman Charles Hobaugh Leland Melvin Robert Satcher Barry Wilmore Soyuz TMA-17 Dec. 20 T.J. Creamer* Oleg Kotov* Soichi Noguchi*

A Window in the Sky In March 2010, the space shuttle Endeavor arrived with a special cargo: The hexagonal Cupola with huge windows to the sky. The Cupola was designed to help astronauts inside the I.S.S. observe approaching ships and assist spacewalks. It also gave the I.S.S. residents a spectacular view of Earth. Throughout the next decade, astronauts beamed back dazzling photos of the Sahara, Northern and Southern lights and panoramas of their hometown seen from above.

2010 Progress M-04M Feb. 3 Feb. Space Shuttle 130 Endeavour • Feb. 8 Bob Behnken Kathy Sullivan Nicholas Patrick Stephen Robinson Terry Virts George Zamka Tranquility Module Feb. 12 Cupola Feb. 15 Soyuz TMA-18 April 2 Tracy Caldwell Dyson* Mikhail Kornienko* Aleksandr Skvortsov* April Space Shuttle 131 Discovery • April 5 Clayton Anderson James Dutton Rick Mastracchio Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger Alan Poindexter Stephanie Wilson Naoko Yamazaki Progress M-05M April 28 Rassvet Mini-Research Module 1 • May 18 Space Shuttle 132 Atlantis • May 14 Dominic Antonelli Steve Bowen Michael Good Ken Ham Garrett Reisman Piers Sellers June Progress M-06M June 30 Soyuz TMA-19 June 15 Shannon Walker* Doug Wheelock* Fyodor Yurchikhin* Aug. Progress M-07M Sept. 10 Oct. Soyuz TMA-1M Oct. 7 Aleksandr Kaleri* Scott Kelly* Oleg Skripochka* Progress M-08M Oct. 27 Dec. Soyuz TMA-20 Dec. 15 Cady Coleman* Dmitri Kondratyev* Paolo Nespoli* 2010 Progress M-04M Feb. 3 Space Shuttle 130 Endeavour • Feb. 8 Bob Behnken Kathy Sullivan Nicholas Patrick Stephen Robinson Terry Virts George Zamka Feb. Tranquility Module Feb. 12 Cupola Feb. 15 Soyuz TMA-18 April 2 Tracy Caldwell Dyson* Mikhail Kornienko* Aleksandr Skvortsov* April Space Shuttle 131 Discovery • April 5 Clayton Anderson James Dutton Rick Mastracchio Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger Alan Poindexter Stephanie Wilson Naoko Yamazaki Progress M-05M April 28 Rassvet Mini-Research Module 1 May 18 Space Shuttle 132 Atlantis • May 14 Dominic Antonelli Steve Bowen Michael Good Ken Ham Garrett Reisman Piers Sellers June Progress M-06M June 30 Soyuz TMA-19 June 15 Shannon Walker* Doug Wheelock* Fyodor Yurchikhin* Aug. Progress M-07M Sept. 10 Oct. Soyuz TMA-1M Oct. 7 Aleksandr Kaleri* Scott Kelly* Oleg Skripochka* Progress M-08M Oct. 27 Dec. Soyuz TMA-20 Dec. 15 Cady Coleman* Dmitri Kondratyev* Paolo Nespoli* 2010 Space Shuttle 130 Endeavour • Feb. 8 Bob Behnken Kathy Sullivan Nicholas Patrick Stephen Robinson Terry Virts George Zamka Cupola Soyuz TMA-18 April 2 Tracy Caldwell Dyson* Mikhail Kornienko* Aleksandr Skvortsov* Space Shuttle 131 Discovery • April 5 Clayton Anderson James Dutton Rick Mastracchio Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger Alan Poindexter Stephanie Wilson Naoko Yamazaki Space Shuttle 132 Atlantis • May 14 Dominic Antonelli Steve Bowen Michael Good Ken Ham Garrett Reisman Piers Sellers Soyuz TMA-19 June 15 Shannon Walker* Doug Wheelock* Fyodor Yurchikhin* Soyuz TMA-1M Oct. 7 Aleksandr Kaleri* Scott Kelly* Oleg Skripochka* Soyuz TMA-20 Dec. 15 Cady Coleman* Dmitri Kondratyev* Paolo Nespoli*

The Final Shuttle Mission On July 8 2011, the Atlantis shuttle launched from the Kennedy Space Center for the last time. After 30 years of flight, the American space shuttle program had ended. For the next nine years, Russian Soyuz rockets once again took up the mantle of ferrying astronauts to and from the I.S.S. The retired ships Atlantis, Discovery and Endeavor quietly live on as museum pieces at the Kennedy Space Center, Smithsonian Annex and California Science Center.

2011 Kounotori 2 H.T.V. • Jan. 22 Progress M-09M Jan. 28 Feb. Johannes Kepler A.T.V. • Feb. 16 Space Shuttle 133 Discovery • Feb. 24 Michael Barratt Eric Boe Steve Bowen Alvin Drew Steve Lindsey Nicole Stott E.L.C. 4 Feb. 26 P.M.M. March 1 April Soyuz TMA-21 April 4 Andrei Borisenko* Ron Garan* Alexander Samokutyaev* Progress M-10M April 27 Space Shuttle 134 Endeavour • May 16 Greg Chamitoff Drew Feustel Mike Fincke Greg Johnson Mark Kelly Roberto Vittori E.L.C. 3 May 18 A.M.S. May 19 June Soyuz TMA-2M June 7 Mike Fossum* Satoshi Furukawa* Sergei Volkov* Progress M-11M June 21 Aug. Space Shuttle 135 Atlantis • July 8 last space shuttle mission Chris Ferguson Doug Hurley Sandy Magnus Rex Walheim Oct. Progress M-13M Oct. 30 Soyuz TMA-22 Nov. 14 Daniel Burbank* Anatoly Ivanishin* Anton Shkaplerov* Dec. Soyuz TMA-3M Dec. 21 Oleg Kononenko* André Kuipers* Don Pettit* 2011 Kounotori 2 H.T.V. • Jan. 22 Progress M-09M Jan. 28 Feb. Johannes Kepler A.T.V. • Feb. 16 Space Shuttle 133 Discovery • Feb. 24 Michael Barratt Eric Boe Steve Bowen Alvin Drew Steve Lindsey Nicole Stott E.L.C. 4 Feb. 26 P.M.M. March 1 April Soyuz TMA-21 April 4 Andrei Borisenko* Ron Garan* Alexander Samokutyaev* Progress M-10M April 27 Space Shuttle 134 Endeavour • May 16 Greg Chamitoff Drew Feustel Mike Fincke Greg Johnson Mark Kelly Roberto Vittori E.L.C. 3 May 18 A.M.S. May 19 June Progress M-11M June 21 Soyuz TMA-2M June 7 Mike Fossum* Satoshi Furukawa* Sergei Volkov* Aug. Space Shuttle 135 Atlantis • July 8 last space shuttle mission Chris Ferguson Doug Hurley Sandy Magnus Rex Walheim Oct. Progress M-13M Oct. 30 Soyuz TMA-22 Nov. 14 Daniel Burbank* Anatoly Ivanishin* Anton Shkaplerov* Dec. Soyuz TMA-3M Dec. 21 Oleg Kononenko* André Kuipers* Don Pettit* 2011 Space Shuttle 133 Discovery • Feb. 24 Michael Barratt Eric Boe Steve Bowen Alvin Drew Steve Lindsey Nicole Stott Soyuz TMA-21 April 4 Andrei Borisenko* Ron Garan* Alexander Samokutyaev* Space Shuttle 134 Endeavour • May 16 Greg Chamitoff Drew Feustel Mike Fincke Greg Johnson Mark Kelly Roberto Vittori Soyuz TMA-2M June 7 Mike Fossum* Satoshi Furukawa* Sergei Volkov* Space Shuttle 135 Atlantis • July 8 last space shuttle mission Chris Ferguson Doug Hurley Sandy Magnus Rex Walheim Soyuz TMA-22 Nov. 14 Daniel Burbank* Anatoly Ivanishin* Anton Shkaplerov* Soyuz TMA-3M Dec. 21 Oleg Kononenko* André Kuipers* Don Pettit*

The Dawn of Commercial Spaceflight Although American shuttles were no longer transporting astronauts, U.S. companies were just getting started ferrying cargo to space. In May an uncrewed SpaceX Dragon capsule became the first private spacecraft to dock to the I.S.S. It was swiftly followed by a second mission in October. And in September 2013, Orbital Sciences Corporation (an American company that has since been acquired by Northrop Grumman) sent its own first uncrewed ship.

2012 Progress M-14M Jan. 25 Feb. Edoardo Amaldi A.T.V. • March 23 April Progress M-15M April 20 Soyuz TMA-4M May 15 Joe Acaba* Gennady Padalka* Sergei Revin* SpaceX D1 May 22 first commercial spacecraft June Soyuz TMA-5M July 15 Akihiko Hoshide* Yuri Malenchenko* Sunita Williams* Kounotori 3 H.T.V. • July 21 Progress M-16M Aug. 1 Aug. Oct. SpaceX CRS-1 Oct. 7 Soyuz TMA-6M Oct. 23 Kevin Ford* Oleg Novitskiy* Evgeny Tarelkin* Progress M-17M Oct. 31 Dec. Soyuz TMA-7M Dec. 19 Chris Hadfield* Tom Marshburn* Roman Romanenko* 2012 Progress M-14M Jan. 25 Feb. Edoardo Amaldi A.T.V. • March 23 April Progress M-15M April 20 Soyuz TMA-4M May 15 Joe Acaba* Gennady Padalka* Sergei Revin* SpaceX D1 May 22 first commercial spacecraft June Soyuz TMA-5M July 15 Akihiko Hoshide* Yuri Malenchenko* Sunita Williams* Kounotori 3 H.T.V. • July 21 Progress M-16M Aug. 1 Aug. Oct. SpaceX CRS-1 Oct. 7 Soyuz TMA-6M Oct. 23 Kevin Ford* Oleg Novitskiy* Evgeny Tarelkin* Progress M-17M Oct. 31 Dec. Soyuz TMA-7M Dec. 19 Chris Hadfield* Tom Marshburn* Roman Romanenko* 2012 Soyuz TMA-4M May 15 Joe Acaba* Gennady Padalka* Sergei Revin* spacex first commercial spacecraft Soyuz TMA-5M July 15 Akihiko Hoshide* Yuri Malenchenko* Sunita Williams* Soyuz TMA-6M Oct. 23 Kevin Ford* Oleg Novitskiy* Evgeny Tarelkin* Soyuz TMA-7M Dec. 19 Chris Hadfield* Tom Marshburn* Roman Romanenko*

Accidents Aboard the Station In July 2013, a routine spacewalk was interrupted by a water leak in astronaut Luca Parmitano’s helmet. In the unusually risky close call, Luca had to navigate back to the airlock by feel, because his vision and communication system were both affected by the leaking water. Despite this close call, accidents aboard the I.S.S. have been rare, and in the two decades of habitation there have been no fatalities in space.

2013 Feb. Progress M-18M Feb. 11 SpaceX CRS-2 March 1 Soyuz TMA-8M March 28 Chris Cassidy* Alexander Misurkin* Pavel Vinogradov* April Progress M-19M April 24 Soyuz TMA-9M May 28 Karen Nyberg* Luca Parmitano* Fyodor Yurchikhin* Albert Einstein A.T.V. • June 5 June helmet water leak during spacewalk Luca Parmitano and Chris Cassidy Progress M-20M July 27 Kounotori 4 H.T.V. • Aug. 4 Aug. G. David Low Cygnus • Sept. 18 Soyuz TMA-10M Sept. 25 Mike Hopkins* Oleg Kotov* Sergei Ryazansky* Oct. Soyuz TMA-11M Nov. 7 Rick Mastracchio* Mikhail Tyurin* Koichi Wakata* Progress M-21M Nov. 25 Dec. 2013 Feb. Progress M-18M Feb. 11 SpaceX CRS-2 March 1 Soyuz TMA-8M March 28 Chris Cassidy* Alexander Misurkin* Pavel Vinogradov* April Progress M-19M April 24 Soyuz TMA-9M May 28 Karen Nyberg* Luca Parmitano* Fyodor Yurchikhin* Albert Einstein A.T.V. • June 5 June Progress M-20M July 27 helmet water leak during spacewalk Luca Parmitano and Chris Cassidy Kounotori 4 H.T.V. • Aug. 4 Aug. G. David Low Cygnus Sept. 18 Soyuz TMA-10M Sept. 25 Mike Hopkins* Oleg Kotov* Sergei Ryazansky* Oct. Soyuz TMA-11M Nov. 7 Rick Mastracchio* Mikhail Tyurin* Koichi Wakata* Progress M-21M Nov. 25 Dec. 2013 Soyuz TMA-8M March 28 Chris Cassidy* Alexander Misurkin* Pavel Vinogradov* Soyuz TMA-9M May 28 Karen Nyberg* Luca Parmitano* Fyodor Yurchikhin* helmet water leak during spacewalk Luca Parmitano and Chris Cassidy Soyuz TMA-10M Sept. 25 Mike Hopkins* Oleg Kotov* Sergei Ryazansky* Soyuz TMA-11M Nov. 7 Rick Mastracchio* Mikhail Tyurin* Koichi Wakata*

The Last European Cargo Flight Five Automated Transfer Vehicles, or A.T.V.s, supplied the I.S.S. with food and equipment during the early 21st century. The last A.T.V., Georges Lemaître, launched in July 2014. The uncrewed cargo ship, like most others servicing the I.S.S., was designed for one-time use. After delivering its cargo, these capsules are filled with the station’s garbage. They burn up harmlessly in the Earth’s atmosphere during re-entry.

2014 C. Gordon Fullerton Cygnus • Jan. 9 Progress M-22M Feb. 5 Feb. Soyuz TMA-12M March 25 Oleg Artemyev* Aleksandr Skvortsov* Steve Swanson* Progress M-23M April 9 April SpaceX CRS-3 April 18 Soyuz TMA-13M May 28 Alexander Gerst* Maxim Surayev* Reid Wiseman* June Janice E. Voss Cygnus • July 13 Progress M-24M July 23 Georges Lemaître ATV • July 29 last european a.t.v. Aug. SpaceX CRS-4 Sept. 21 Soyuz TMA-14M Sept. 25 Alexander Samokutyaev* Elena Serova* Barry Wilmore* Oct. Progress M-25M Oct. 29 Soyuz TMA-15M Nov. 23 Samantha Cristoforetti* Anton Shkaplerov* Terry Virts* Dec. 2014 C. Gordon Fullerton Cygnus • Jan. 9 Progress M-22M Feb. 5 Feb. Soyuz TMA-12M March 25 Oleg Artemyev* Aleksandr Skvortsov* Steve Swanson* Progress M-23M April 9 April SpaceX CRS-3 April 18 Soyuz TMA-13M May 28 Alexander Gerst* Maxim Surayev* Reid Wiseman* June Janice E. Voss Cygnus July 13 Progress M-24M July 23 Georges Lemaître ATV • July 29 last european a.t.v. Aug. SpaceX CRS-4 Sept. 21 Soyuz TMA-14M Sept. 25 Alexander Samokutyaev* Elena Serova* Barry Wilmore* Oct. Progress M-25M Oct. 29 Soyuz TMA-15M Nov. 23 Samantha Cristoforetti* Anton Shkaplerov* Terry Virts* Dec. 2014 Soyuz TMA-12M March 25 Oleg Artemyev* Aleksandr Skvortsov* Steve Swanson* Soyuz TMA-13M May 28 Alexander Gerst* Maxim Surayev* Reid Wiseman* Georges Lemaître last european a.t.v. Soyuz TMA-14M Sept. 25 Alexander Samokutyaev* Elena Serova* Barry Wilmore* Soyuz TMA-15M Nov. 23 Samantha Cristoforetti* Anton Shkaplerov* Terry Virts*

Planting Space Lettuce In April 2014, a SpaceX flight delivered an unusual cargo: Red romaine lettuce seeds, each nestled inside a special “plant pillow” full of fertilizer and a type of clay. This was the first fresh food production system aboard the I.S.S. This first crop was returned to Earth for analysis, where laboratory tests showed the lettuce was safe to eat. I.S.S. astronauts were able to enjoy the lettuce for themselves after their second crop was harvested in August 2015.

2015 SpaceX CRS-5 Jan. 10 Feb. one year crew Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko Progress M-26M Feb. 17 Soyuz TMA-16M March 27 Scott Kelly* Mikhail Kornienko* Gennady Padalka* April SpaceX CRS-6 April 14 June Progress M-28M July 3 Soyuz TMA-17M July 22 Oleg Kononenko* Kjell Lindgren* Kimiya Yui* Aug. Kounotori 5 H.T.V. • Aug. 19 Soyuz TMA-18M Sept. 2 Aidyn Aimbetov Andreas Mogensen Sergei Volkov* Progress M-29M Oct. 1 Oct. Deke Slayton II Cygnus • Dec. 6 Dec. Soyuz TMA-19M Dec. 15 Tim Kopra* Yuri Malenchenko* Tim Peake* Progress MS-01 Dec. 21 2015 SpaceX CRS-5 Jan. 10 Feb. one year crew Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko Progress M-26M Feb. 17 Soyuz TMA-16M March 27 Scott Kelly* Mikhail Kornienko* Gennady Padalka* April SpaceX CRS-6 April 14 June Progress M-28M July 3 Soyuz TMA-17M July 22 Oleg Kononenko* Kjell Lindgren* Kimiya Yui* Aug. Kounotori 5 H.T.V. • Aug. 19 Soyuz TMA-18M Sept. 2 Aidyn Aimbetov Andreas Mogensen Sergei Volkov* Progress M-29M Oct. 1 Oct. Dec. Deke Slayton II Cygnus • Dec. 6 Soyuz TMA-19M Dec. 15 Tim Kopra* Yuri Malenchenko* Tim Peake* Progress MS-01 Dec. 21 2015 one year crew Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko Soyuz TMA-16M March 27 Scott Kelly* Mikhail Kornienko* Gennady Padalka* Soyuz TMA-17M July 22 Oleg Kononenko* Kjell Lindgren* Kimiya Yui* Soyuz TMA-18M Sept. 2 Aidyn Aimbetov Andreas Mogensen Sergei Volkov* Soyuz TMA-19M Dec. 15 Tim Kopra* Yuri Malenchenko* Tim Peake*

The One-Year Crew In March 2015, Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko arrived at the I.S.S. on a special mission. They were tasked with spending almost a full year aboard the ship, to study how long-duration space missions affect the human body. Scott’s identical twin Mark, who remained on Earth, was also part of the experiment. Mark’s health could help estimate how Scott’s body might have changed if he had not been in space.

2016 Feb. one year crew returns to earth Rick Husband March 22 Progress MS-02 March 31 Soyuz TMA-20M March 18 Aleksei Ovchinin* Oleg Skripochka* Jeff Williams* April SpaceX CRS-8 April 8 Bigelow Expandable Activity Module April 16 June Progress MS-03 July 16 Soyuz MS-1 July 7 Anatoly Ivanishin* Takuya Onishi* Kate Rubins* SpaceX CRS-9 July 18 Aug. Oct. Soyuz MS-2 Oct. 19 Andrei Borisenko* Shane Kimbrough* Sergey Ryzhikov* Alan Poindexter Cygnus • Oct. 17 Soyuz MS-3 Nov. 17 Oleg Novitskiy* Thomas Pesquet* Peggy Whitson* Dec. Kounotori 6 H.T.V. • Dec. 9 2016 Feb. one year crew returns to earth Rick Husband March 22 Progress MS-02 March 31 Soyuz TMA-20M March 18 Aleksei Ovchinin* Oleg Skripochka* Jeff Williams* April SpaceX CRS-8 April 8 Bigelow Expandable Activity Module April 16 June Progress MS-03 July 16 Soyuz MS-1 July 7 Anatoly Ivanishin* Takuya Onishi* Kate Rubins* SpaceX CRS-9 July 18 Aug. Oct. Soyuz MS-2 Oct. 19 Andrei Borisenko* Shane Kimbrough* Sergey Ryzhikov* Alan Poindexter Cygnus • Oct. 17 Soyuz MS-3 Nov. 17 Oleg Novitskiy* Thomas Pesquet* Peggy Whitson* Dec. Kounotori 6 H.T.V. • Dec. 9 2016 one year crew returns to earth Soyuz TMA-20M March 18 Aleksei Ovchinin* Oleg Skripochka* Jeff Williams* Soyuz MS-1 July 7 Anatoly Ivanishin* Takuya Onishi* Kate Rubins* Soyuz MS-2 Oct. 19 Andrei Borisenko* Shane Kimbrough* Sergey Ryzhikov* Soyuz MS-3 Nov. 17 Oleg Novitskiy* Thomas Pesquet* Peggy Whitson*

Science Aboard the I.S.S. The I.S.S. has hosted hundreds scientific experiments throughout the years, by students as well as professional researchers. The ship has plant habitats, aquariums and several rodent facilities that research how long-term spaceflight affects living creatures. One of the earliest I.S.S. outreach programs, called EarthKAM, allowed students to request photos of specific places on Earth, taken from a camera installed in the station.

2017 Feb. SpaceX CRS-10 Feb. 19 Progress MS-05 Feb. 22 April John Glenn Cygnus • April 18 Soyuz MS-4 April 20 Jack Fischer* Fyodor Yurchikhin* SpaceX CRS-11 June 3 June Progress MS-06 June 14 Soyuz MS-5 July 28 Randy Bresnik* Paolo Nespoli* Sergei Ryazansky* Aug. SpaceX CRS-12 Aug. 14 Soyuz MS-6 Sept. 12 Joe Acaba* Mark Vande Hei* Alexander Misurkin* Oct. Progress MS-07 Oct. 14 Gene Cernan Cygnus • Nov. 12 Dec. Soyuz MS-7 Dec. 17 Norishige Kanai* Anton Shkaplerov* Scott Tingle* SpaceX CRS-13 Dec. 15 2017 Feb. SpaceX CRS-10 Feb. 19 Progress MS-05 Feb. 22 April John Glenn Cygnus • April 18 Soyuz MS-4 April 20 Jack Fischer* Fyodor Yurchikhin* SpaceX CRS-11 June 3 June Progress MS-06 June 14 Soyuz MS-5 July 28 Randy Bresnik* Paolo Nespoli* Sergei Ryazansky* Aug. SpaceX CRS-12 Aug. 14 Soyuz MS-6 Sept. 12 Joe Acaba* Mark Vande Hei* Alexander Misurkin* Oct. Progress MS-07 Oct. 14 Gene Cernan Cygnus Nov. 12 Dec. Soyuz MS-7 Dec. 17 Norishige Kanai* Anton Shkaplerov* Scott Tingle* SpaceX CRS-13 Dec. 15 2017 Soyuz MS-4 April 20 Jack Fischer* Fyodor Yurchikhin* Soyuz MS-5 July 28 Randy Bresnik* Paolo Nespoli* Sergei Ryazansky* Soyuz MS-6 Sept. 12 Joe Acaba* Mark Vande Hei* Alexander Misurkin* Soyuz MS-7 Dec. 17 Norishige Kanai* Anton Shkaplerov* Scott Tingle*

Emergency Planning In addition to delivering new astronauts to the station, Soyuz spacecraft serve as an escape pod in the event of an emergency evacuation. At least one Soyuz is always docked to the station for this purpose. 2018 was an eventful year for the Soyuz. In August, a small leak was discovered (and repaired) on the Soyuz MS-9, which was docked to the I.S.S. And in October, another Soyuz had an emergency abort in flight.

2018 Feb. Progress MS-08 Feb. 13 Soyuz MS-8 March 21 Ricky Arnold* Oleg Artemyev* Drew Feustel* SpaceX CRS-14 April 2 April J. R. Thompson Cygnus • May 21 June Soyuz MS-9 June 6 Serena Auñón-Chancellor* Alexander Gerst* Sergey Prokopyev* SpaceX CRS-15 June 29 Progress MS-09 July 9 Aug. leak aboard soyuz ms-9 repaired Kounotori 7 H.T.V. • Sept. 23 Oct. Progress MS-10 Nov. 16 John Young Cygnus • Nov. 17 SpaceX CRS-16 Dec. 5 Soyuz MS-11 Dec. 3 Oleg Kononenko* Anne McClain* David Saint-Jacques* Dec. 2018 Feb. Progress MS-08 Feb. 13 Soyuz MS-8 March 21 Ricky Arnold* Oleg Artemyev* Drew Feustel* SpaceX CRS-14 April 2 April J.R. Thompson Cygnus May 21 June Soyuz MS-9 June 6 Serena Auñón-Chancellor* Alexander Gerst* Sergey Prokopyev* SpaceX CRS-15 June 29 Progress MS-09 July 9 Aug. leak aboard soyuz ms-9 repaired Kounotori 7 H.T.V. • Sept. 23 Oct. Progress MS-10 Nov. 16 John Young Cygnus Nov. 17 SpaceX CRS-16 Dec. 5 Dec. Soyuz MS-11 Dec. 3 Oleg Kononenko* Anne McClain* David Saint-Jacques* 2018 Soyuz MS-8 March 21 Ricky Arnold* Oleg Artemyev* Drew Feustel* Soyuz MS-9 June 6 Serena Auñón-Chancellor* Alexander Gerst* Sergey Prokopyev* leak aboard soyuz ms-9 repaired Soyuz MS-11 Dec. 3 Oleg Kononenko* Anne McClain* David Saint-Jacques*

First All-Woman Spacewalk In October 2019, NASA Flight Engineers Christina Koch and Jessica Meir concluded the first all-woman spacewalk. Both crew members are part of the 2013 astronaut class, which was the first to have an equal number of men and women. The spacewalk had originally been scheduled for earlier in March, but was postponed because the station did not have two medium-sized spacesuits that could be used without extensive configuration.

2019 Feb. SpaceX Demo-1 Uncrewed test flight • March 2 Soyuz MS-12 March 14 Nick Hague* Christina Koch* Aleksei Ovchinin* Progress MS-11 April 4 April Roger Chaffee Cygnus • April 17 SpaceX CRS-17 May 4 June SpaceX CRS-18 July 25 Soyuz MS-13 July 20 Andrew Morgan* Luca Parmitano* Aleksandr Skvortsov* Progress MS-12 July 31 Aug. Soyuz MS-14 Uncrewed taxi flight • Aug. 21 Kounotori 8 H.T.V. • Sept. 25 Soyuz MS-15 Sept. 25 Jessica Meir* Oleg Skripochka* Hazzaa al-Mansoori Oct. first all-woman spacewalk Christina Koch and Jessica Meir Alan Bean Cygnus • Nov. 2 SpaceX CRS-19 Dec. 5 Dec. Progress MS-13 Dec. 6 2019 Feb. SpaceX Demo-1 Uncrewed test flight • March 2 Soyuz MS-12 March 14 Nick Hague* Christina Koch* Aleksei Ovchinin* Progress MS-11 April 4 April Roger Chaffee Cygnus • April 17 SpaceX CRS-17 May 4 June SpaceX CRS-18 July 25 Soyuz MS-13 July 20 Andrew Morgan* Luca Parmitano* Aleksandr Skvortsov* Progress MS-12 July 31 Aug. Soyuz MS-14 Uncrewed taxi flight • Aug. 21 Kounotori 8 H.T.V. • Sept. 25 Soyuz MS-15 Sept. 25 Jessica Meir* Oleg Skripochka* Hazzaa al-Mansoori Oct. first all-woman spacewalk Christina Koch and Jessica Meir Alan Bean Cygnus • Nov. 2 SpaceX CRS-19 Dec. 5 Dec. Progress MS-13 Dec. 6 2019 Soyuz MS-12 March 14 Nick Hague* Christina Koch* Aleksei Ovchinin* Soyuz MS-13 July 20 Andrew Morgan* Luca Parmitano* Aleksandr Skvortsov* Soyuz MS-15 Sept. 25 Jessica Meir* Oleg Skripochka* Hazzaa al-Mansoori first all-woman spacewalk Christina Koch and Jessica Meir

The Dragon Arrives In May 2020, SpaceX made history by becoming the first commercial company to send astronauts to the I.S.S. Spacecraft Commander Doug Hurley and Joint Operations Commander Bob Behnken — both veteran NASA astronauts — remained aboard the I.S.S. for two months, conducting scientific experiments and spacewalks. They guided the Crew Dragon capsule to a safe landing off the coast of Florida in early August.

2020 Feb. Robert H. Lawrence Cygnus • Feb. 15 SpaceX CRS-20 March 6 Bartolomeo Payload Hosting Platform • April 2 April Soyuz MS-16 April 9 Chris Cassidy* Anatoly Ivanishin* Ivan Vagner* Progress MS-14 April 25 Kounotori 9 H.T.V. • May 21 June SpaceX Demo-2 May 30 Bob Behnken Doug Hurley Progress MS-15 July 23 crew dragon returns to earth Aug. Kalpana Chawla Cygnus • Oct. 2 Oct. Soyuz MS-17 Oct. 14 Sergey Kud-Sverchkov* Kate Rubins* Sergey Ryzhikov* 2020 Feb. Robert H. Lawrence Cygnus Feb. 15 SpaceX CRS-20 March 6 Bartolomeo Payload Hosting Platform • April 2 April Soyuz MS-16 April 9 Chris Cassidy* Anatoly Ivanishin* Ivan Vagner* Progress MS-14 April 25 Kounotori 9 H.T.V. • May 21 June SpaceX Demo-2 May 30 Bob Behnken Doug Hurley Progress MS-15 July 23 crew dragon returns to earth Aug. Kalpana Chawla Cygnus • Oct. 2 Oct. Soyuz MS-17 Oct. 14 Sergey Kud-Sverchkov* Kate Rubins* Sergey Ryzhikov* 2020 Soyuz MS-16 April 9 Chris Cassidy* Anatoly Ivanishin* Ivan Vagner* SpaceX Demo-2 May 30 Bob Behnken Doug Hurley crew dragon returns to earth Soyuz MS-17 Oct. 14 Sergey Kud-Sverchkov* Kate Rubins* Sergey Ryzhikov*

Note: For arrivals, dates of installation are shown for I.S.S. components and launch dates for all others. Departures can show the date of landing on Earth or date of release from the I.S.S., due to discrepancies in reported data. Due to the time zone difference between the I.S.S. and landing sites, some dates may differ by one day from those reported elsewhere. Some smaller I.S.S. pieces delivered alongside major ship components are not shown as separate segments, and retired I.S.S. components are not shown. Events in which ships or I.S.S. components temporarily undocked and re-docked are not shown. Sources | Spacecraft illustrations and photographs were created by NASA. Spaceflight mission emblems were created by their respective mission organizations. Data was compiled from various publications and web pages by NASA, ESA, Encyclopedia Britannica, Northrop Grumman Cygnus, SpaceX and the F.A.A. Annual Compedium of Commercial Space Transportation.

Another former campaign staffer for Scott Taylor indicted on election fraud

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VIRGINIA BEACH, Va. - Another former campaign staffer for former Congressman Scott Taylor’s 2018 campaign has been indicted on an election fraud charge. The indictment came down in Virginia Beach Circuit Court Tuesday.

In an interview with News 3, Defense Attorney Richard Doummar said Heather Guillot worked for Taylor during his re-election campaign. He says the charges stem from an alleged petition scandal two years ago.

Doummar says his client is saddened and says this has been a black cloud hanging over her head.

“The timing certainly seems a little coincidental. Let’s say that obviously my client is disappointed that the grand jury came down with this indictment today,” he said.

Doummar says Guillot has gotten out of politics. He says she plans to plead not guilty and turn herself in tomorrow.

Taylor’s campaign released a statement on the indictment saying:

“Former, 2018 campaign staff made poor, unethical decisions two years ago. Unethical decisions that Scott Taylor would never condone or permit. Scott Taylor had no knowledge of any wrongdoing and has never been under investigation, as Scott was told by the special agent investigating with the Virginia State Police: “in no way are you being looked at as any type of suspect.” Those involved in any illicit behavior can and should be held accountable.

But since 2018, the attorneys appointed to this investigation have unfortunately been more preoccupied with political justice or “poetic justice” than actual justice. Stalling the judicial process and pursuing justice on a politically convenient timeline is unprofessional and disturbing. It is a sad reality that this prosecutor’s actions are dictated by a political agenda, rather than a dutiful responsibility to pursue truth and justice in a timely manner.

It is disappointing to see the democrat prosecutor conduct a political witch hunt in an effort to distract voters away from the real issues facing the 2nd District, such as Elaine Luria’s unaccountable constituent record during a pandemic and bad-for-business voting record.”

In May 2019, campaign staffer Lauren Creekmore, now Lauren Creekmore Peabody, was indicted on two felony charges for election fraud. As we previously reported, Creekmore helped collect signatures to get an Independent candidate, Shaun Brown, on the ballot in the summer of 2018. A special prosecutor said her actions violated Virginia law.

In March of this year, Peabody pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor charge of willful neglect. She was sentenced to one year in jail and fined $2,500, but a judge suspended the year of jail time and $1,500 of the fine on the condition of a year of good behavior.

Taylor lost his re-election bid to incumbent Rep. Elaine Luria in November 2018. They will face off for the seat in Virginia’s 2nd House District once again in November.

Download the News 3 app for updates.